Interaction of angiotensin I-Converting enzyme insertion-deletion polymorphism and daily salt intake influences hypertension in Japanese men

Ling Zhang, Koichi Miyaki, Jungo Araki, Yixuan Song, Tomomi Kimura, Kazuyuki Omae, Masaaki Muramatsu

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The contribution of anglotensin I-converting enzyme insertion-deletion polymorphism (ACE I/D) to salt-sensitivity hypertension has been extensively studied by means of salt-loading tests, but whether or not the interaction with daily salt intake affects blood pressure still remains to be clarified. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study of 284 Japanese male workers (age range, 20-64 years) to examine the effect of ACE I/D genotype and daily salt intake on hypertension. Blood pressure was measured and the ACE I/D was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Daily salt intake was calculated from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). In multivariate analyses, we explored the interaction of ACE I/D and salt intake by means of logistic regression analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. ACE I/D per se was not associated with blood pressure levels or hypertension. ACE I/D interacted with daily salt intake and correlated with hypertension (p for interaction = 0.047). In the ID+II genotype, hypertension was increased by high salt intake (p=0.005), while in the DD genotype it was not (p=0.257). The interaction was more prominent in the overweight group (p=0.039) than in non-overweight group. In the overweight group, high salt intake induced a 10.5 mmHg higher diastolic blood pressure in the ID+II genotype than in the DD genotype (p=0.042). Our results suggest that ACE I/D and daily salt intake constitute a gene-environment interaction, which may be further modulated by overweight.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)751-758
Number of pages8
JournalHypertension Research
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Oct 1



  • Angiotensin I-converting enzyme
  • Gene-environment interaction
  • Hypertension
  • Polymorphism
  • Salt sensitivity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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