The innate immune system comprises several classes of pattern-recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs). TLRs recognize microbes on the cell surface and in endosomes, whereas NLRs sense microbial molecules in the cytosol. In this review, we focus on the role of NLRs in host defence against bacterial pathogens. Nod1 and Nod2 sense the cytosolic presence of molecules containing meso-diaminopimelic acid and muramyl dipeptide respectively, and drive the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-κB. In contrast, Ipaf, Nalp1b and Cryopyrin/Nalp3 promote the assembly of inflammasomes that are required for the activation of caspase-1. Mutation in several NLR members, including NOD2 and Cryopyrin, is associated with the development of inflammatory disorders. Further understanding of NLRs should provide new insights into the mechanisms of host defence and the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases.
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