The impacts of granular jets for both frictional and frictionless grains in two dimensions are numerically investigated. A dense flow with a dead zone emerges during the impact. From our two-dimensional simulation, we evaluate the equations of state and the constitutive equations of the flow. The asymptotic divergences of pressure and shear stress similar to the situation near the jamming transition appear for the frictionless case, while their exponents are smaller than those of the sheared granular systems, and are close to the extrapolation from the kinetic theoretical regime. In a similar manner to the jamming for frictional grains, the critical density decreases as the friction constant of grains increases. For bi-disperse systems, the effective friction constant, defined as the ratio of shear stress to normal stress, monotonically increases from near zero as the strain rate increases. On the other hand, the effective friction constant has two metastable branches for mono-disperse systems because of the coexistence of a crystallized state and a liquid state.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)