Studies suggest that sprawling and auto-oriented development patterns present more difficulties for people without cars to access economic opportunities. We examine intrametropolitan and intermetropolitan variations in job accessibility by commuting mode as an indicator of auto-oriented urban structure, selecting Boston, Los Angeles, and Tokyo as study areas. Although in both US and Japanese metropolitan areas, job accessibility is significantly lower for public transit users than for auto users, job accessibility for public transit users in the US cases is strikingly lower than in Tokyo. The international comparison provides a clear picture of the significant disadvantage in accessing job opportunities encountered by US workers who are unable to use private vehicles. The empirical results uncover an important dimension of urban structure that deserves much attention from planners and policymakers.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geography, Planning and Development
- Urban Studies
- Nature and Landscape Conservation
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law