Liver atrophy after percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization occurs in two histological phases

Hepatocellular atrophy followed by apoptosis

Yasuhito Iwao, Hidenori Ojima, Tatsushi Kobayashi, Yoji Kishi, Satoshi Nara, Minoru Esaki, Kazuaki Shimada, Nobuyoshi Hiraoka, Minoru Tanabe, Yae Kanai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

AIM To clarify the histological changes associated with liver atrophy after percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization (PTPE) in pigs and humans. METHODS As a preliminary study, we performed pathological examinations of liver specimens from five pigs that had undergone PTPE in a time-dependent model of liver atrophy. In specimens from embolized lobes (EMB) and nonembolized lobes (controls), we measured the portal vein to central vein distance (PV-CV), the area and number of hepatocytes per lobule, and apoptotic activity using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nickend labeling assay. Immunohistochemical reactivities were evaluated for light chain 3 (LC3) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) as autophagy markers and for glutamine synthetase and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) as metabolic zonation markers. Samples from ten human livers taken 20-36 d after PTPE were similarly examined. RESULTS PV-CVs and lobule areas did not differ between EMB and controls at day 0, but were lower in EMB than in controls at weeks 2, 4, and 6 (P ≤ 0.001). Hepatocyte numbers were not significantly reduced in EMB at day 0 and week 2 but were reduced at weeks 4 and 6 (P ≤ 0.05). Apoptotic activity was higher in EMB than in controls at day 0 and week 4. LC3 and LAMP2 staining peaked in EMB at week 2, with no significant difference between EMB and controls at weeks 4 and 6. Glutamine synthetase and CYP2E1 zonation in EMB at weeks 2, 4, and 6 were narrower than those in controls. Human results were consistent with those of porcine specimens. CONCLUSION The mechanism of liver atrophy after PTPE has two histological phases: Hepatocellular atrophy is likely caused by autophagy in the first 2 wk and apoptosis thereafter.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1227-1238
Number of pages12
JournalWorld Journal of Hepatology
Volume9
Issue number32
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Nov 18

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Atrophy
Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 2
Apoptosis
Liver
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1
Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase
Swine
Autophagy
Hepatocytes
Light
DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase
Portal Vein
Veins
Staining and Labeling

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Autophagy
  • Liver atrophy
  • Lobule
  • Portal vein embolization
  • Zonation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology

Cite this

Liver atrophy after percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization occurs in two histological phases : Hepatocellular atrophy followed by apoptosis. / Iwao, Yasuhito; Ojima, Hidenori; Kobayashi, Tatsushi; Kishi, Yoji; Nara, Satoshi; Esaki, Minoru; Shimada, Kazuaki; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Tanabe, Minoru; Kanai, Yae.

In: World Journal of Hepatology, Vol. 9, No. 32, 18.11.2017, p. 1227-1238.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Iwao, Yasuhito ; Ojima, Hidenori ; Kobayashi, Tatsushi ; Kishi, Yoji ; Nara, Satoshi ; Esaki, Minoru ; Shimada, Kazuaki ; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi ; Tanabe, Minoru ; Kanai, Yae. / Liver atrophy after percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization occurs in two histological phases : Hepatocellular atrophy followed by apoptosis. In: World Journal of Hepatology. 2017 ; Vol. 9, No. 32. pp. 1227-1238.
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abstract = "AIM To clarify the histological changes associated with liver atrophy after percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization (PTPE) in pigs and humans. METHODS As a preliminary study, we performed pathological examinations of liver specimens from five pigs that had undergone PTPE in a time-dependent model of liver atrophy. In specimens from embolized lobes (EMB) and nonembolized lobes (controls), we measured the portal vein to central vein distance (PV-CV), the area and number of hepatocytes per lobule, and apoptotic activity using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nickend labeling assay. Immunohistochemical reactivities were evaluated for light chain 3 (LC3) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) as autophagy markers and for glutamine synthetase and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) as metabolic zonation markers. Samples from ten human livers taken 20-36 d after PTPE were similarly examined. RESULTS PV-CVs and lobule areas did not differ between EMB and controls at day 0, but were lower in EMB than in controls at weeks 2, 4, and 6 (P ≤ 0.001). Hepatocyte numbers were not significantly reduced in EMB at day 0 and week 2 but were reduced at weeks 4 and 6 (P ≤ 0.05). Apoptotic activity was higher in EMB than in controls at day 0 and week 4. LC3 and LAMP2 staining peaked in EMB at week 2, with no significant difference between EMB and controls at weeks 4 and 6. Glutamine synthetase and CYP2E1 zonation in EMB at weeks 2, 4, and 6 were narrower than those in controls. Human results were consistent with those of porcine specimens. CONCLUSION The mechanism of liver atrophy after PTPE has two histological phases: Hepatocellular atrophy is likely caused by autophagy in the first 2 wk and apoptosis thereafter.",
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T2 - Hepatocellular atrophy followed by apoptosis

AU - Iwao, Yasuhito

AU - Ojima, Hidenori

AU - Kobayashi, Tatsushi

AU - Kishi, Yoji

AU - Nara, Satoshi

AU - Esaki, Minoru

AU - Shimada, Kazuaki

AU - Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi

AU - Tanabe, Minoru

AU - Kanai, Yae

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N2 - AIM To clarify the histological changes associated with liver atrophy after percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization (PTPE) in pigs and humans. METHODS As a preliminary study, we performed pathological examinations of liver specimens from five pigs that had undergone PTPE in a time-dependent model of liver atrophy. In specimens from embolized lobes (EMB) and nonembolized lobes (controls), we measured the portal vein to central vein distance (PV-CV), the area and number of hepatocytes per lobule, and apoptotic activity using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nickend labeling assay. Immunohistochemical reactivities were evaluated for light chain 3 (LC3) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) as autophagy markers and for glutamine synthetase and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) as metabolic zonation markers. Samples from ten human livers taken 20-36 d after PTPE were similarly examined. RESULTS PV-CVs and lobule areas did not differ between EMB and controls at day 0, but were lower in EMB than in controls at weeks 2, 4, and 6 (P ≤ 0.001). Hepatocyte numbers were not significantly reduced in EMB at day 0 and week 2 but were reduced at weeks 4 and 6 (P ≤ 0.05). Apoptotic activity was higher in EMB than in controls at day 0 and week 4. LC3 and LAMP2 staining peaked in EMB at week 2, with no significant difference between EMB and controls at weeks 4 and 6. Glutamine synthetase and CYP2E1 zonation in EMB at weeks 2, 4, and 6 were narrower than those in controls. Human results were consistent with those of porcine specimens. CONCLUSION The mechanism of liver atrophy after PTPE has two histological phases: Hepatocellular atrophy is likely caused by autophagy in the first 2 wk and apoptosis thereafter.

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KW - Autophagy

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KW - Portal vein embolization

KW - Zonation

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