Background: This study aimed to investigate the long-term oncologic outcomes of laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy (LRNU) and open radical nephroureterectomy (ORNU) for patients with clinical and pathologic T3N0M0 upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Methods: Among 375 UTUC patients who underwent radical nephroureterectomy, this study identified 144 pT3N0M0 patients as cohort 1 after propensity score (PS) matching. Among 399 UTUC patients, the study identified 110 cT3N0M0 patients as cohort 2 after PS matching. Oncologic outcomes such as intravesical recurrence-free survival (IVRFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were assessed by multivariate Cox’s regression analysis. Results: Cohort 1 of pT3N0M0 UTUC had 3-year CSS and IVRFS rates of 67.9 and 52.7%, respectively, in the LRNU group, which were significantly lower than in the ORNU group (81.4%, p = 0.039 and 71.6%, p = 0.046). The multivariate Cox’s regression analysis identified the type of surgical approach (LRNU vs. ORNU) as one of the independent prognostic factors for CSS (hazard rate [HR], 1.88, p = 0.043) and IVRFS (HR, 1.75, p = 0.049). Cohort 2 of cT3N0M0 UTUC had 3-year CSS and IVRFS rates of 48.5 and 41.4%, respectively, in the LRNU group, which were significantly lower than in the ORNU group (65.8%, p = 0.049 and 67.2%, p = 0.047), and the type of surgical approach (LRNU vs. ORNU) remained as one of the independent prognostic factors for CSS and IVRFS. Conclusions: Based on clinical and pathologic T3N0M0 UTUC populations after PS adjustments, LRNU resulted in poorer CSS and IVRFS than ORNU.
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