BACKGROUND: This study examined the relationships among household income, other SES indicators, and macronutrient intake in a cross-sectional study of a representative Japanese population.
METHODS: In 2010, we established a cohort of participants in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) from 300 randomly selected areas throughout Japan. A total of 2,637 participants (1,145 men and 1,492 women) were included in the study. Data from NHNS2010 and the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions 2010 (CSCL2010) were merged, and relationships among macronutrient intake and SES were evaluated. Additionally, socioeconomic factors associated with a risk of a higher carbohydrate/lower fat intake beyond dietary recommendations were evaluated.
RESULTS: Household income was positively associated with fat intake (P = 0.001 for men and <0.001 for women) and inversely associated with carbohydrate intake (P = 0.003 for men and <0.001 for women) after adjustments for age and other SES variables. Similar relationships were observed between equivalent household expenditure (EHE) and macronutrient intake; however, these relationships were weaker than those of household income. Older age was the factor most strongly associated with a high carbohydrate/low fat intake, followed by household income, EHE, education levels, and occupation type.
CONCLUSIONS: Older age was the factor most strongly associated with a high carbohydrate/low fat intake, and some aspects of SES, such as household income, EHE, education levels, and occupation type, were independently associated with an imbalanced macronutrient intake. SES may affect the health status of individuals through the intake of macronutrients.
- household income
- macronutrient intake
- nutritional epidemiology
- socioeconomic status
ASJC Scopus subject areas