Strategies to prevent hyperglycemia-induced cytotoxic reactive oxygen species in the retina include the prevention of free radical production, activation of radical-scavenging capacities and inhibition of aldose reductase. This study examined the effect of the standardized Japanese herbal extract product gosha-jinki-gan (GJG) in comparison to insulin treatment in the rat retina. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by single injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg i.p.). At 6 and 12 weeks, eyecups were removed for immunohistochemistry. At 12 weeks, lipid peroxidation (tested with the antiacrolein antibody, Ab5F6) was enhanced significantly in the untreated diabetic group. This effect was absent in both treatment groups, notably in the outer retina. A similar result was obtained for nitrotyrosine overproduction. As an early treatment effect, GJG - but not insulin - enhanced soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) activation (using the function-sensing antibody, MoAb 3221). GJG not only reduces nitroxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in the retina, it also ameliorates glucose metabolism within the cells. We propose that the high glucose turnover in the insulin-treated model disturbs the intracellular redox equilibrium, one result of which might be the impaired sGC activation.
- Diabetic retinopathy
- Japanese phytotherapy (Kampo)
- Lipid peroxide
- Soluble guanylate cyclase
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Sensory Systems
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience