Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) has been purified as an inactive zymogen of M(r) 92,000 (proMMP-9) from the culture medium of HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. The NH2-terminal sequence of proMMP-9 is Ala-Pro-Arg- Gln-Arg-Gln-Ser-Thr-Leu-Val-Leu-Phe-Pro, which is identical to that of the 92-kDa type IV collagenase/gelatinase. The zymogen can be activated by 4- aminophenylmercuric acetate, yielding an intermediate form of M(r) 83,000 and an active species of M(r) 67,000, the second of which has a new NH2 terminus of Met-Arg-Thr-Pro-Arg-(Cys)-Gly-Val-Pro-Asp-Leu-Gly-Arg-Phe-Gln-Thr-Phe-Glu. Immunoblot analyses demonstrate that this activation process is achieved by sequential processing of both NH2-and COOH-terminal peptides. TIMP-1 complexed with proMMP-9 inhibits the conversion of the intermediate form to the active species of M(r) 67,000. The proenzyme is fully activated by cathepsin G, trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, and MMP-3 (stromelysin 1) but not by plasmin, leukocyte elastase, plasma kallikrein, thrombin, or MMP-1 (tissue collagenase). During the activation by MMP-3, proMMP-9 is converted to an active species of M(r) 64,000 that lacks both NH2- and COOH-terminal peptides. In addition, HOCl partially activates the zymogen by reacting with an intermediate species of M(r) 83,000. The enzyme degrades type I gelatin rapidly and also cleaves native collagens including α2 chain of type I collagen, collagen types III, IV, and V at undenaturing temperatures. These results indicate that MMP-9 has different activation mechanisms and substrate specificity from those of MMP-2 (72-kDa gelatinase/type IV collagenase).
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|Publication status||Published - 1992|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology