MCAT elements and the TEF-1 family of transcription factors in muscle development and disease

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55 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

MCAT elements are located in the promoter-enhancer regions of cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscle-specific genes including cardiac troponin T, β-myosin heavy chain, smooth muscle α-actin, and skeletal α-actin, and play a key role in the regulation of these genes during muscle development and disease. The binding factors of MCAT elements are members of the transcriptional enhancer factor-1 (TEF-1) family. However, it has not been fully understood how these transcription factors confer cell-specific expression in muscle, because their expression patterns are relatively broad. Results of recent studies revealed multiple mechanisms whereby TEF-1 family members control MCAT element-dependent muscle-specific gene expression, including posttranslational modifications of TEF-1 family members, the presence of muscle-selective TEF-1 cofactors, and cell-selective control of TEF-1 accessibility to MCAT elements. In addition, of particular interest, recent studies regarding MCAT element-dependent transcription of the myocardin gene and the smooth muscle α-actin gene in muscle provide evidence for the transcriptional diversity among distinct cell types and subtypes. This article summarizes the role of MCAT elements and the TEF-1 family of transcription factors in muscle development and disease, and reviews recent progress in our understanding of the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms involved in MCAT element-dependent muscle-specific gene expression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8-17
Number of pages10
JournalArteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Volume28
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Cardiac muscle
  • MCAT element
  • Myofibroblasts
  • Skeletal muscle
  • Smooth muscle
  • Transcriptional enhancer factor-1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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