Measurements of LET distribution and dose equivalent onboard the Space Shuttle IML-2 (STS-65) and S/MM#4 (STS-79).

T. Hayashi, T. Doke, J. Kikuchi, T. Sakaguchi, R. Takeuchi, T. Takashima, M. Kobayashi, Kazuhiro Terasawa, K. Takahashi, A. Watanabe, A. Kyan, N. Hasebe, T. Kashiwagi, K. Ogura, S. Nagaoka, M. Kato, T. Nakano, S. Takahashi, H. Yamanaka, K. YamaguchiG. D. Badhwar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Space radiation dosimetry measurements have been made onboard the Space Shuttle STS-65 in the Second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2: 28.5 degrees x 300 km: 14.68 days) and the STS-79 in the 4th Shuttle MIR mission (S/MM#4: 51.6 degrees x 300-400km: 10.2 days). In these measurements, three kinds of detectors were used; one is a newly developed active detector telescope called "Real-time Radiation Monitoring Device (RRMD-I for IML-2 and RRMD-II with improved triggering system for S/MM#4)" utilizing silicon semi-conductor detectors and the other detectors are conventional passive detectors of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and CR-39 plastic track detectors. The main contribution to dose equivalent for particles with LET > 5.0 keV/micrometer (IML-2) and LET > 3.5 keV/micrometer (S/MM#4) is seen to be due to galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and the contribution of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is less than 5% (IML-2: 28.5 degrees x 300 km) and 15% (S/MM#4: 51.6 degrees x 400 km) in the above RRMD LET detection conditions. For the whole LET range (> 0.2 kev/micrometer) obtained by TLDs and CR-39 in these two typical orbits (a small inclination x low altitude and a large inclination x high altitude), absorbed dose rates range from 94 to 114 microGy/day, dose equivalent rates from 186 to 207 microSv/day and average quality factors from 1.82 to 2.00 depending on the locations and directions of detectors inside the Spacelab at the highly protected IML-2 orbit (28.5 degrees x 300 km), and also, absorbed dose rates range from 290 to 367 microGy/day, dose equivalent rates from 582 to 651 microSv/day and average quality factors from 1.78 to 2.01 depending on the dosimeter packages around the RRMD-II "Detector Unit" at the S/MM#4 orbit (5l.6 degrees x 400km). In general, it is seen that absorbed doses depend on the orbit altitude (SAA trapped particles contribution dominant) and dose equivalents on the orbit inclination (GCR contribution dominant). The LET distributions obtained by two different types of active and passive detectors, RRMDs and CR-39, are in good agreement for LET of 15 - 200 kev/micrometer and difference of these distributions in the regions of LET < 15 kev/micrometer and LET > 200 kev/micrometer can be explained by considering characteristics of CR-39 etched track formation especially for the low LET tracks and chemical etching conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)355-364
Number of pages10
JournalBiological sciences in space = Uchū seibutsu kagaku
Volume11
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1997
Externally publishedYes

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Linear Energy Transfer
Orbit
Radiation Monitoring
Telescopes
Radiometry
Weightlessness
Silicon
Plastics
Equipment and Supplies
CR 39

Cite this

Hayashi, T., Doke, T., Kikuchi, J., Sakaguchi, T., Takeuchi, R., Takashima, T., ... Badhwar, G. D. (1997). Measurements of LET distribution and dose equivalent onboard the Space Shuttle IML-2 (STS-65) and S/MM#4 (STS-79). Biological sciences in space = Uchū seibutsu kagaku, 11(4), 355-364.

Measurements of LET distribution and dose equivalent onboard the Space Shuttle IML-2 (STS-65) and S/MM#4 (STS-79). / Hayashi, T.; Doke, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Sakaguchi, T.; Takeuchi, R.; Takashima, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Terasawa, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, K.; Watanabe, A.; Kyan, A.; Hasebe, N.; Kashiwagi, T.; Ogura, K.; Nagaoka, S.; Kato, M.; Nakano, T.; Takahashi, S.; Yamanaka, H.; Yamaguchi, K.; Badhwar, G. D.

In: Biological sciences in space = Uchū seibutsu kagaku, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1997, p. 355-364.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hayashi, T, Doke, T, Kikuchi, J, Sakaguchi, T, Takeuchi, R, Takashima, T, Kobayashi, M, Terasawa, K, Takahashi, K, Watanabe, A, Kyan, A, Hasebe, N, Kashiwagi, T, Ogura, K, Nagaoka, S, Kato, M, Nakano, T, Takahashi, S, Yamanaka, H, Yamaguchi, K & Badhwar, GD 1997, 'Measurements of LET distribution and dose equivalent onboard the Space Shuttle IML-2 (STS-65) and S/MM#4 (STS-79).', Biological sciences in space = Uchū seibutsu kagaku, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 355-364.
Hayashi, T. ; Doke, T. ; Kikuchi, J. ; Sakaguchi, T. ; Takeuchi, R. ; Takashima, T. ; Kobayashi, M. ; Terasawa, Kazuhiro ; Takahashi, K. ; Watanabe, A. ; Kyan, A. ; Hasebe, N. ; Kashiwagi, T. ; Ogura, K. ; Nagaoka, S. ; Kato, M. ; Nakano, T. ; Takahashi, S. ; Yamanaka, H. ; Yamaguchi, K. ; Badhwar, G. D. / Measurements of LET distribution and dose equivalent onboard the Space Shuttle IML-2 (STS-65) and S/MM#4 (STS-79). In: Biological sciences in space = Uchū seibutsu kagaku. 1997 ; Vol. 11, No. 4. pp. 355-364.
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title = "Measurements of LET distribution and dose equivalent onboard the Space Shuttle IML-2 (STS-65) and S/MM#4 (STS-79).",
abstract = "Space radiation dosimetry measurements have been made onboard the Space Shuttle STS-65 in the Second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2: 28.5 degrees x 300 km: 14.68 days) and the STS-79 in the 4th Shuttle MIR mission (S/MM#4: 51.6 degrees x 300-400km: 10.2 days). In these measurements, three kinds of detectors were used; one is a newly developed active detector telescope called {"}Real-time Radiation Monitoring Device (RRMD-I for IML-2 and RRMD-II with improved triggering system for S/MM#4){"} utilizing silicon semi-conductor detectors and the other detectors are conventional passive detectors of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and CR-39 plastic track detectors. The main contribution to dose equivalent for particles with LET > 5.0 keV/micrometer (IML-2) and LET > 3.5 keV/micrometer (S/MM#4) is seen to be due to galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and the contribution of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is less than 5{\%} (IML-2: 28.5 degrees x 300 km) and 15{\%} (S/MM#4: 51.6 degrees x 400 km) in the above RRMD LET detection conditions. For the whole LET range (> 0.2 kev/micrometer) obtained by TLDs and CR-39 in these two typical orbits (a small inclination x low altitude and a large inclination x high altitude), absorbed dose rates range from 94 to 114 microGy/day, dose equivalent rates from 186 to 207 microSv/day and average quality factors from 1.82 to 2.00 depending on the locations and directions of detectors inside the Spacelab at the highly protected IML-2 orbit (28.5 degrees x 300 km), and also, absorbed dose rates range from 290 to 367 microGy/day, dose equivalent rates from 582 to 651 microSv/day and average quality factors from 1.78 to 2.01 depending on the dosimeter packages around the RRMD-II {"}Detector Unit{"} at the S/MM#4 orbit (5l.6 degrees x 400km). In general, it is seen that absorbed doses depend on the orbit altitude (SAA trapped particles contribution dominant) and dose equivalents on the orbit inclination (GCR contribution dominant). The LET distributions obtained by two different types of active and passive detectors, RRMDs and CR-39, are in good agreement for LET of 15 - 200 kev/micrometer and difference of these distributions in the regions of LET < 15 kev/micrometer and LET > 200 kev/micrometer can be explained by considering characteristics of CR-39 etched track formation especially for the low LET tracks and chemical etching conditions.",
author = "T. Hayashi and T. Doke and J. Kikuchi and T. Sakaguchi and R. Takeuchi and T. Takashima and M. Kobayashi and Kazuhiro Terasawa and K. Takahashi and A. Watanabe and A. Kyan and N. Hasebe and T. Kashiwagi and K. Ogura and S. Nagaoka and M. Kato and T. Nakano and S. Takahashi and H. Yamanaka and K. Yamaguchi and Badhwar, {G. D.}",
year = "1997",
language = "English",
volume = "11",
pages = "355--364",
journal = "Biological sciences in space = Uchū seibutsu kagaku",
issn = "0914-9201",
publisher = "Nihon Uchu Seibutsu Kagakka/Japanese Society for Biological Sciences in Space",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Measurements of LET distribution and dose equivalent onboard the Space Shuttle IML-2 (STS-65) and S/MM#4 (STS-79).

AU - Hayashi, T.

AU - Doke, T.

AU - Kikuchi, J.

AU - Sakaguchi, T.

AU - Takeuchi, R.

AU - Takashima, T.

AU - Kobayashi, M.

AU - Terasawa, Kazuhiro

AU - Takahashi, K.

AU - Watanabe, A.

AU - Kyan, A.

AU - Hasebe, N.

AU - Kashiwagi, T.

AU - Ogura, K.

AU - Nagaoka, S.

AU - Kato, M.

AU - Nakano, T.

AU - Takahashi, S.

AU - Yamanaka, H.

AU - Yamaguchi, K.

AU - Badhwar, G. D.

PY - 1997

Y1 - 1997

N2 - Space radiation dosimetry measurements have been made onboard the Space Shuttle STS-65 in the Second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2: 28.5 degrees x 300 km: 14.68 days) and the STS-79 in the 4th Shuttle MIR mission (S/MM#4: 51.6 degrees x 300-400km: 10.2 days). In these measurements, three kinds of detectors were used; one is a newly developed active detector telescope called "Real-time Radiation Monitoring Device (RRMD-I for IML-2 and RRMD-II with improved triggering system for S/MM#4)" utilizing silicon semi-conductor detectors and the other detectors are conventional passive detectors of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and CR-39 plastic track detectors. The main contribution to dose equivalent for particles with LET > 5.0 keV/micrometer (IML-2) and LET > 3.5 keV/micrometer (S/MM#4) is seen to be due to galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and the contribution of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is less than 5% (IML-2: 28.5 degrees x 300 km) and 15% (S/MM#4: 51.6 degrees x 400 km) in the above RRMD LET detection conditions. For the whole LET range (> 0.2 kev/micrometer) obtained by TLDs and CR-39 in these two typical orbits (a small inclination x low altitude and a large inclination x high altitude), absorbed dose rates range from 94 to 114 microGy/day, dose equivalent rates from 186 to 207 microSv/day and average quality factors from 1.82 to 2.00 depending on the locations and directions of detectors inside the Spacelab at the highly protected IML-2 orbit (28.5 degrees x 300 km), and also, absorbed dose rates range from 290 to 367 microGy/day, dose equivalent rates from 582 to 651 microSv/day and average quality factors from 1.78 to 2.01 depending on the dosimeter packages around the RRMD-II "Detector Unit" at the S/MM#4 orbit (5l.6 degrees x 400km). In general, it is seen that absorbed doses depend on the orbit altitude (SAA trapped particles contribution dominant) and dose equivalents on the orbit inclination (GCR contribution dominant). The LET distributions obtained by two different types of active and passive detectors, RRMDs and CR-39, are in good agreement for LET of 15 - 200 kev/micrometer and difference of these distributions in the regions of LET < 15 kev/micrometer and LET > 200 kev/micrometer can be explained by considering characteristics of CR-39 etched track formation especially for the low LET tracks and chemical etching conditions.

AB - Space radiation dosimetry measurements have been made onboard the Space Shuttle STS-65 in the Second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2: 28.5 degrees x 300 km: 14.68 days) and the STS-79 in the 4th Shuttle MIR mission (S/MM#4: 51.6 degrees x 300-400km: 10.2 days). In these measurements, three kinds of detectors were used; one is a newly developed active detector telescope called "Real-time Radiation Monitoring Device (RRMD-I for IML-2 and RRMD-II with improved triggering system for S/MM#4)" utilizing silicon semi-conductor detectors and the other detectors are conventional passive detectors of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and CR-39 plastic track detectors. The main contribution to dose equivalent for particles with LET > 5.0 keV/micrometer (IML-2) and LET > 3.5 keV/micrometer (S/MM#4) is seen to be due to galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and the contribution of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is less than 5% (IML-2: 28.5 degrees x 300 km) and 15% (S/MM#4: 51.6 degrees x 400 km) in the above RRMD LET detection conditions. For the whole LET range (> 0.2 kev/micrometer) obtained by TLDs and CR-39 in these two typical orbits (a small inclination x low altitude and a large inclination x high altitude), absorbed dose rates range from 94 to 114 microGy/day, dose equivalent rates from 186 to 207 microSv/day and average quality factors from 1.82 to 2.00 depending on the locations and directions of detectors inside the Spacelab at the highly protected IML-2 orbit (28.5 degrees x 300 km), and also, absorbed dose rates range from 290 to 367 microGy/day, dose equivalent rates from 582 to 651 microSv/day and average quality factors from 1.78 to 2.01 depending on the dosimeter packages around the RRMD-II "Detector Unit" at the S/MM#4 orbit (5l.6 degrees x 400km). In general, it is seen that absorbed doses depend on the orbit altitude (SAA trapped particles contribution dominant) and dose equivalents on the orbit inclination (GCR contribution dominant). The LET distributions obtained by two different types of active and passive detectors, RRMDs and CR-39, are in good agreement for LET of 15 - 200 kev/micrometer and difference of these distributions in the regions of LET < 15 kev/micrometer and LET > 200 kev/micrometer can be explained by considering characteristics of CR-39 etched track formation especially for the low LET tracks and chemical etching conditions.

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