Mechanisms of multi-component perovskite synthesis from stoichiometric mixtures by a soft-mechanochemical route

J. G. Baek, K. Gomi, T. Watanabe, T. Isobe, M. Senna

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12 Citations (Scopus)


Mechanism of complex formation by milling a mixture comprising PbO, TiO2, Nb2O5 and Mg(OH)2 was examined. Due to the strong acidity of Nb2O5 and basicity of Mg(OH)2, a typical acid-base reaction takes place during milling with simultaneous partial reduction of Nb5+ to Nb2+, as evidenced by XPS. This mechanochemical reaction, together with further interaction with PbO and TiO2, brings about precursors of the perovskite solid solution, (1-X)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 with x ranging from 0 to 0.2. The mixture after milling is more homogeneous and contains even a small amount of crystalline perovskite. On subsequent heating, growth of perovskite takes place parallel with a solid state reaction via pyrochlore, resulting in a pure perovskite phase at temperatures as low as 850°C. A mixture without mechanical stressing brings about a pyrochlore as a main phase by heating under the same condition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)115-120
Number of pages6
JournalMaterials Science Forum
Issue numberPART 1
Publication statusPublished - 1997 Dec 1



  • Charge transfer
  • Mechanochemical reaction
  • Perovskite solid solution
  • Precursor
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

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