Pulmonary vessels have numerous variation and aberrant branching patterns. Mediastinal lingular artery (MLA), the most common aberrant branch, might contribute to greater blood flow to lingular division. Hence, we investigated a correlation between lingular division volume and MLA using three-dimensional CT volumetry. We included 199 consecutive patients who underwent surveillance chest CT to detect possible malignancies in April 2015. We measured lingular division volume and cross-sectional area of lingular arteries using three-dimensional CT volumetry. MLA was identified in 58 cases (29.1%). The MLA group had significantly greater lingular division volume (median ± quartile deviation: 378.3 ± 75.5 mL vs. 330.0 ± 87.5 mL; p = 0.021) and percentage lingular division to left lung volume (19.0 ± 2.62% vs. 16.6 ± 2.39%; p < 0.001) than the non-MLA group. Total cross-sectional area of lingular arteries of the MLA group was significantly larger than that of the non-MLA group (46.1 ± 9.46 vs. 40.2 ± 5.76 mm2; p = 0.003). The total cross-sectional area of the lingular arteries strongly correlated to the percentage of lingular division to left lung volume (r = 0.689, p < 0.001). This is the first report demonstrating a positive correlation between branching pattern of pulmonary artery and lung volume.
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