Medical expenditures of men with hypertension and/or a smoking habit: A 10-year follow-up study of National Health Insurance in Shiga, Japan

Koshi Nakamura, Tomonori Okamura, Takehito Hayakawa, Hideyuki Kanda, Akira Okayama, Hirotsugu Ueshima

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Hypertension and smoking are major causes of disability and death, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, where there is a high prevalence of a combination of these two risk factors. We attempted to measure the medical expenditures of a Japanese male population with hypertension and/or a smoking habit over a 10-year period of follow-up. A cohort study was conducted that investigated the medical expenditures due to a smoking habit and/or hypertension during the decade of the 1990s using existing data on physical status and medical expenditures. The participants included 1708 community-dwelling Japanese men, aged 40-69 years, who were classified into the following four categories: neither smoking habit nor hypertension, smoking habit alone, hypertension alone or both smoking habit and hypertension. Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg, a diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or taking antihypertensive medications. In the study cohort, 24.9% had both a smoking habit and hypertension. During the 10-year follow-up period, participants with a smoking habit alone (18 444 Japanese yen per month), those with hypertension alone (21 252 yen per month) and those with both a smoking habit and hypertension (31 037 yen per month) had increased personal medical expenditures compared with those without a smoking habit and hypertension (17 418 yen per month). Similar differences were observed even after adjustment for other confounding factors (P<0.01). Japanese men with both a smoking habit and hypertension incurred higher medical expenditures compared with those without a smoking habit, hypertension or their combination.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)802-807
Number of pages6
JournalHypertension Research
Volume33
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Aug
Externally publishedYes

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antineoplaston A10
National Health Programs
Health Expenditures
Habits
Japan
Smoking
Hypertension
Blood Pressure
Personal Financing
Cohort Studies
Independent Living
Antihypertensive Agents
Cause of Death

Keywords

  • epidemiology
  • medical expenditures
  • smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Medical expenditures of men with hypertension and/or a smoking habit : A 10-year follow-up study of National Health Insurance in Shiga, Japan. / Nakamura, Koshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kanda, Hideyuki; Okayama, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu.

In: Hypertension Research, Vol. 33, No. 8, 08.2010, p. 802-807.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nakamura, Koshi ; Okamura, Tomonori ; Hayakawa, Takehito ; Kanda, Hideyuki ; Okayama, Akira ; Ueshima, Hirotsugu. / Medical expenditures of men with hypertension and/or a smoking habit : A 10-year follow-up study of National Health Insurance in Shiga, Japan. In: Hypertension Research. 2010 ; Vol. 33, No. 8. pp. 802-807.
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