Nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most frequently prescribed drugs currently available. The most frequently reported serious side effects associated with NSAIDs are gastric mucosal ulceration and gastric hemorrhage. Presently, these side effects are only detectable by endoscopy, however, and no biomarkers have yet been identified. The ability to identify serum biomarkers would likely improve the safety of NSAID use. In this study we performed capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS)-based metabolomic profiling in stomach extract and serum from rats administered NSAIDs. Results showed drug-induced decreases in levels of citrate, cis-aconitate, succinate, 3-hydroxy butanoic acid, o-acetyl carnitine, proline, and hydroxyproline. We consider that these changes are due to NSAID-induced depression of mitochondrial function and activation of collagenase by lesions in the stomach. In addition, four of these changes in metabolite levels in the stomach were significantly correlated with changes in the serum. While further study is needed to clarify the mechanism of change in the level of these biomarkers, limitation of indications, and extrapolation to humans, these new serum biomarker candidates of gastric injury may be useful in the monitoring of NSAID-induced tissue damage.
- capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry
- diagnostic marker candidate
- gastric injury
- nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs
ASJC Scopus subject areas