Metabolomic alteration of oral keratinocytes and fibroblasts in hypoxia

Hiroko Kato, Masahiro Sugimoto, Ayame Enomoto, Miku Kaneko, Yuko Hara, Naoaki Saito, Aki Shiomi, Hisashi Ohnuki, Kenji Izumi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The oxygen concentration in normal human tissue under physiologic conditions is lower than the atmospheric oxygen concentration. The more hypoxic condition has been observed in the cells with wound healing and cancer. Somatic stem cells reside in a hypoxic microenvironment in vivo and prefer hypoxic culture conditions in vitro. Oral mucosa contains tissue-specific stem cells, which is an excellent tissue source for regenerative medicine. For clinical usage, maintaining the stem cell in cultured cells is important. We previously reported that hypoxic culture conditions maintained primary oral keratinocytes in an undifferentiated and quiescent state and enhanced their clonogenicity. However, the metabolic mechanism of these cells is unclear. Stem cell biological and pathological findings have shown that metabolic reprogramming is important in hypoxic culture conditions, but there has been no report on oral mucosal keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Herein, we conducted metabolomic analyses of oral mucosal keratinocytes and fibroblasts under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxic oral keratinocytes and fibroblasts showed a drastic change of metabolite concentrations in urea cycle metabolites and polyamine pathways. The changes of metabolic profiles in glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway under hypoxic conditions in the oral keratinocytes were consistent with those of other somatic stem cells. The metabolic profiles in oral fibroblasts showed only little changes in any pathway under hypoxia except for a significant increase in the antioxidant 2-oxoglutaric acid. This report firstly provides the holistic changes of various metabolic pathways of hypoxic cultured oral keratinocytes and fibroblasts.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1156
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Mar 2


  • Metabolomics
  • Oral fibroblasts
  • Oral keratinocytes
  • Oxygen biology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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