Metabolomic Profiling of Plasma, Urine, and Saliva of Kidney Transplantation Recipients

Hitoshi Iwamoto, Masaaki Okihara, Isao Akashi, Yu Kihara, Osamu Konno, Shigeyuki Kawachi, Makoto Sunamura, Masahiro Sugimoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Kidney biopsy is commonly used to diagnose kidney transplant dysfunction after transplantation. Therefore, the development of minimally invasive and quantitative methods to evaluate kidney function in transplant recipients is necessary. Here, we used capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry to analyze the biofluids collected from transplant recipients with impaired (Group I, n = 31) and stable (Group S, n = 19) kidney function and from donors (Group D, n = 9). Metabolomics analyses identified and quantified 97 metabolites in plasma, 133 metabolites in urine, and 108 metabolites in saliva. Multivariate analyses revealed apparent differences in the metabolomic profiles of the three groups. In plasma samples, arginine biosynthesis and purine metabolism between the I and S Groups differed. In addition, considerable differences in metabolomic profiles were observed between samples collected from participants with T cell-mediated rejection (TCR), antibody-mediated rejection, and other kidney disorders (KD). The metabolomic profiles in the three types of biofluids showed different patterns between TCR and KD, wherein 3-indoxyl sulfate showed a significant increase in TCR consistently in both plasma and urine samples. These results suggest that each biofluid has different metabolite features to evaluate kidney function after transplantation and that 3-indoxyl sulfate could predict acute rejection.

Original languageEnglish
Article number13938
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Nov


  • biofluid
  • capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry
  • kidney transplantation
  • metabolomics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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