Angiogenesis, a process by which new vascular networks are formed from pre-existing capillaries, is required for tumors to grow, invade, and metastasize. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a specific mitogen to endothelial cells, is a crucial factor for tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we investigated whether minodronate, a newly developed nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, could inhibit melanoma growth and improve survival in nude mice by suppressing the VEGF signaling. We found here that minodronate inhibited melanoma growth and improved survival in nude mice by suppressing the tumor-associated angiogenesis and macrophage infiltration. Minodronate completely inhibited the VEGF-induced increase in DNA synthesis and tube formation in endothelial cells by suppressing NADPH oxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species generation and Ras activation. Furthermore, minodronate inhibited the VEGF-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in endothelial cells. Minodronate decreased DNA synthesis and increased apoptotic cell death of cultured melanoma cells as well. Our present study suggests that minodronate might suppress melanoma growth and improve survival in nude mice by two independent mechanisms; one is by blocking the VEGF signaling in endothelial cells, and the other is by inducing apoptotic cell death of melanoma. The present study provides a novel potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of melanoma.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine