The cellular events underlying the resolution of acute inflammation are not known in molecular terms. To identify anti-inflammatory and proresolving circuits, we investigated the temporal and differential changes in self-resolving murine exudates using mass spectrometry-based proteomics and lipidomics. Key resolution components were defined as resolution indices including Ψmax, the maximal neutrophil numbers that are present during the inflammatory response; Tmax, the time when Ψmax occurs; and the resolution interval (Ri) from Tmax to T50 when neutrophil numbers reach half Ψmax. The onset of resolution was at ∼12 h with proteomic analysis showing both haptoglobin and S100A9 levels were maximal and other exudate proteins were dynamically regulated. Eicosanoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids first appeared within 4 h. Interestingly, the docosahexaenoic acid-derived anti-inflammatory lipid mediator 10,17S-docosatriene was generated during the Ri. Administration of aspirin-triggered lipoxin A 4 analog, resolvin E1, or 10,17S-docosatriene each either activated and/or accelerated resolution. For example, aspirin-triggered lipoxin A 4 analog reduced Ψmax, resolvin E1 decreased both Ψmax and Tmax, whereas 10,17S-docosatriene reduced Ψmax, Tmax, and shortened Ri. Also, aspirin-triggered lipexin A4 analog markedly inhibited proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines at 4 h (20-50% inhibition), whereas resolvin E1 and 10,17S-docosatriene's inhibitory actions were maximal at 12 h (30-80% inhibition). Moreover, aspirin-triggered lipoxin A4 analog evoked release of the antiphlogistic cytokine TGF-β. These results characterize the first molecular resolution circuits and their major components activated by specific novel lipid mediators (i.e., resolvin E1 and 10,17S-docosatriene) to promote resolution.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy