Multi-stack silicon-direct wafer bonding for 3D MEMS manufacturing

Norihisa Miki, X. Zhang, R. Khanna, A. A. Ayón, D. Ward, S. M. Spearing

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

68 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Multi-stack wafer bonding is one of the most promising fabrication techniques for creating three-dimensional (3D) microstructures. However, there are several bonding issues that have to be faced and overcome to build multilayered structures successfully. Among these are: (1) chemical residues on surfaces to be bonded originating from the fabrication processes prior to bonding; (2) increased stiffness due to multiple bonded wafers and/or thick wafers; (3) bonding tool effects; (4) defect propagation to other wafer-levels after high-temperature annealing cycles. The problems and the solutions presented here are readily applicable to any microelectromechanical systems project involving the fabrication of multi-stack structures of two or more wafers containing intricate geometries and large etched areas.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)194-201
Number of pages8
JournalSensors and Actuators, A: Physical
Volume103
Issue number1-2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2003 Jan 15
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Wafer bonding
Silicon
microelectromechanical systems
MEMS
manufacturing
wafers
Fabrication
silicon
fabrication
Stiffness
Annealing
Defects
Microstructure
Geometry
stiffness
microstructure
cycles
annealing
propagation
defects

Keywords

  • 3D structure
  • Multi-stack wafer bonding
  • Silicon-direct bonding
  • Wafer bonding

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Instrumentation

Cite this

Multi-stack silicon-direct wafer bonding for 3D MEMS manufacturing. / Miki, Norihisa; Zhang, X.; Khanna, R.; Ayón, A. A.; Ward, D.; Spearing, S. M.

In: Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical, Vol. 103, No. 1-2, 15.01.2003, p. 194-201.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Miki, Norihisa ; Zhang, X. ; Khanna, R. ; Ayón, A. A. ; Ward, D. ; Spearing, S. M. / Multi-stack silicon-direct wafer bonding for 3D MEMS manufacturing. In: Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical. 2003 ; Vol. 103, No. 1-2. pp. 194-201.
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