The hindlimbs of two orangutans and four chimpanzees were dissected, and muscle parameters (mass, fascicle length, and physiological cross-sectional area: PCSA) were determined to explore possible interspecies variation in muscle dimensions. Muscle mass and PCSA were divided by the total mass and total PCSA of the entire foot muscles for normalization. The results indicate that the pedal interosseous and the intrinsic pedal digital extensor muscles in the orangutans probably have higher capacity for force production due to their relatively larger PCSAs than in chimpanzees. Moreover, the medial components of the intrinsic muscles exhibited relatively larger mass and PCSA ratios in orangutans. The mass and PCSA ratios of the hallucal muscles were larger in chimpanzees. These differences in foot muscle dimensions of the two species suggest that the orangutan is more specialized for hook-like digital gripping without involvement of the rudimentary hallux, while the chimpanzee is adapted to hallux-assisted power gripping in arboreal locomotion.
- Physiological cross-sectional area
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental Biology
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology