Neuroimmune crosstalk in the gut and liver

Toshiaki Teratani, Yohei Mikami, Takanori Kanai

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

It has long been assumed that the nervous system exerts distinct effects on immune functions, given the large number of immune disorders that are affected by mental stress. In fact, many different immune cells have been shown to possess a wide variety of neurotransmitter receptors and receive signals from various neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine and noradrenaline. Compared with the findings on local neuroimmune interactions, limited experimental techniques have so far failed to capture a comprehensive overview of neuroimmune interactions between distant organs and the autonomic nervous system in vivo, and the molecular mechanisms underlying local immune regulation of the nervous system have long remained unclear. However, the recent rapid progress in genetic recombination, microscopy and single-cell analysis has deepened our understanding of the anatomical and physiological functions of peripheral nerves at each organ to which they belong. Furthermore, the development of optogenetic and chemogenetic methods has enabled the artificial modulation of specific neuronal activities, and there has been remarkable progress in elucidation of the interaction between nerves and immune cells in vivo, particularly in barrier organs such as the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract and skin. This review focuses on the immunoregulatory mechanisms governed by the autonomic nervous system and outlines the latest findings in the regulation of enteric and hepatic immunity by the nervous system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)475-484
Number of pages10
JournalInternational immunology
Volume34
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Sep 6

Keywords

  • gut–brain axis
  • inflammatory bowel diseases
  • mucosal immunology
  • neuroimmune interaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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