New 50cm-diameter photo-detectors based on three different types of amplification systems were developed for future large water Cherenkov detectors. The R12860 PMT, based on a box-and-line dynode, was developed with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. (Hamamatsu). Its detection efficiency is twice that of a conventional 50 cm PMT, while also improving by a factor two the charge and timing resolutions and being able to resist pressures up to 1.25MPa. A 50 cm hybrid photo-detector (HPD) using an avalanche diode (Hamamatsu, R12850) realized further improvement on the resolutions by the successful development of a preamplifier. It requires higher bias voltage (eight kilovolts), which lead to the development of a built-in power supply or water tight connector. Finally, a 50-cm micro-channel plate PMT (GDB-6203) was developed for water Cherenkov detectors by North Night Vision Technology Co., LTD in China. It is based on the GDB-6201 model, with improved timing performances. The charge resolutions for single photoelectron of the R12860, R12850 and GDB-6203 PMTs were evaluated to be 35%, 15%, and 40% (standard deviation), while the transit time spreads measured for single photoelectrons at a fixed threshold were 4.1, 3.6 and 4.3 nsec (FWHM) respectively. We obtained operational waterproof designs for all those photodetectors.
|Journal||Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment|
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - 2019 Jan 1|
- Water Cherenkov detector
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Nuclear and High Energy Physics