Non-intrusive measurements of crater growth

Olivier S. Barnouin-Jha, Satoru Yamamoto, Takashi Toriumi, Seiji Sugita, Takafumi Matsui

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

An experimental technique to measure crater growth is presented whereby a high speed video captures profiles of a crater forming after impact obtained using a vertical laser sheet centered on the impact point. Unlike previous so called "quarter-space experiments," where projectiles were launched along a transparent Plexiglas sheet so that growth of half a crater could be viewed, the use of the laser sheet permits viewing changes in crater shape without any physical interference to the cratering process. This technique indicates that for low velocity impacts (< 300  m / s) into 220 μm glass beads that are without cohesion and where the projectile is not disrupted, craters initially grow somewhat proportionally, but that later their depths remain essentially constant while their diameters continue to expand. In addition, these experiments indicate that as the impact velocity increases, the rate of growth and the transient depth to diameter ratio at the end of ejecta excavation decreases. These last two observations are probably due to the large time of penetration of the projectile, which becomes a significant fraction of the time of crater formation. This is contrary to the expectations for the scaling rules, which assumes a point source. Very high curtain angles (>45°) are also seen, and could be due to the low friction angle of the target. Significant crater modification, which is rarely seen in "quarter-space experiments," is also observed and appears to be controlled by the dynamic angle of repose of the target. These latter observations indicate that differences in target friction angles may need to be considered when determining near rim ejecta-mass distributions and large-scale crater modification processes on the planets.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)506-521
Number of pages16
JournalIcarus
Volume188
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Jun
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

nonintrusive measurement
craters
crater
friction
laser
point impact
cratering
ejecta
rims
mass distribution
polymethyl methacrylate
low speed
lasers
projectiles
planets
planet
experiment
high speed
interference
profiles

Keywords

  • Cratering
  • Impact processes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

Barnouin-Jha, O. S., Yamamoto, S., Toriumi, T., Sugita, S., & Matsui, T. (2007). Non-intrusive measurements of crater growth. Icarus, 188(2), 506-521. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2007.01.009

Non-intrusive measurements of crater growth. / Barnouin-Jha, Olivier S.; Yamamoto, Satoru; Toriumi, Takashi; Sugita, Seiji; Matsui, Takafumi.

In: Icarus, Vol. 188, No. 2, 06.2007, p. 506-521.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Barnouin-Jha, OS, Yamamoto, S, Toriumi, T, Sugita, S & Matsui, T 2007, 'Non-intrusive measurements of crater growth', Icarus, vol. 188, no. 2, pp. 506-521. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2007.01.009
Barnouin-Jha OS, Yamamoto S, Toriumi T, Sugita S, Matsui T. Non-intrusive measurements of crater growth. Icarus. 2007 Jun;188(2):506-521. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2007.01.009
Barnouin-Jha, Olivier S. ; Yamamoto, Satoru ; Toriumi, Takashi ; Sugita, Seiji ; Matsui, Takafumi. / Non-intrusive measurements of crater growth. In: Icarus. 2007 ; Vol. 188, No. 2. pp. 506-521.
@article{5bd5c08ab10a4643ad4d8a0978a38221,
title = "Non-intrusive measurements of crater growth",
abstract = "An experimental technique to measure crater growth is presented whereby a high speed video captures profiles of a crater forming after impact obtained using a vertical laser sheet centered on the impact point. Unlike previous so called {"}quarter-space experiments,{"} where projectiles were launched along a transparent Plexiglas sheet so that growth of half a crater could be viewed, the use of the laser sheet permits viewing changes in crater shape without any physical interference to the cratering process. This technique indicates that for low velocity impacts (< 300  m / s) into 220 μm glass beads that are without cohesion and where the projectile is not disrupted, craters initially grow somewhat proportionally, but that later their depths remain essentially constant while their diameters continue to expand. In addition, these experiments indicate that as the impact velocity increases, the rate of growth and the transient depth to diameter ratio at the end of ejecta excavation decreases. These last two observations are probably due to the large time of penetration of the projectile, which becomes a significant fraction of the time of crater formation. This is contrary to the expectations for the scaling rules, which assumes a point source. Very high curtain angles (>45°) are also seen, and could be due to the low friction angle of the target. Significant crater modification, which is rarely seen in {"}quarter-space experiments,{"} is also observed and appears to be controlled by the dynamic angle of repose of the target. These latter observations indicate that differences in target friction angles may need to be considered when determining near rim ejecta-mass distributions and large-scale crater modification processes on the planets.",
keywords = "Cratering, Impact processes",
author = "Barnouin-Jha, {Olivier S.} and Satoru Yamamoto and Takashi Toriumi and Seiji Sugita and Takafumi Matsui",
year = "2007",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1016/j.icarus.2007.01.009",
language = "English",
volume = "188",
pages = "506--521",
journal = "Icarus",
issn = "0019-1035",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Non-intrusive measurements of crater growth

AU - Barnouin-Jha, Olivier S.

AU - Yamamoto, Satoru

AU - Toriumi, Takashi

AU - Sugita, Seiji

AU - Matsui, Takafumi

PY - 2007/6

Y1 - 2007/6

N2 - An experimental technique to measure crater growth is presented whereby a high speed video captures profiles of a crater forming after impact obtained using a vertical laser sheet centered on the impact point. Unlike previous so called "quarter-space experiments," where projectiles were launched along a transparent Plexiglas sheet so that growth of half a crater could be viewed, the use of the laser sheet permits viewing changes in crater shape without any physical interference to the cratering process. This technique indicates that for low velocity impacts (< 300  m / s) into 220 μm glass beads that are without cohesion and where the projectile is not disrupted, craters initially grow somewhat proportionally, but that later their depths remain essentially constant while their diameters continue to expand. In addition, these experiments indicate that as the impact velocity increases, the rate of growth and the transient depth to diameter ratio at the end of ejecta excavation decreases. These last two observations are probably due to the large time of penetration of the projectile, which becomes a significant fraction of the time of crater formation. This is contrary to the expectations for the scaling rules, which assumes a point source. Very high curtain angles (>45°) are also seen, and could be due to the low friction angle of the target. Significant crater modification, which is rarely seen in "quarter-space experiments," is also observed and appears to be controlled by the dynamic angle of repose of the target. These latter observations indicate that differences in target friction angles may need to be considered when determining near rim ejecta-mass distributions and large-scale crater modification processes on the planets.

AB - An experimental technique to measure crater growth is presented whereby a high speed video captures profiles of a crater forming after impact obtained using a vertical laser sheet centered on the impact point. Unlike previous so called "quarter-space experiments," where projectiles were launched along a transparent Plexiglas sheet so that growth of half a crater could be viewed, the use of the laser sheet permits viewing changes in crater shape without any physical interference to the cratering process. This technique indicates that for low velocity impacts (< 300  m / s) into 220 μm glass beads that are without cohesion and where the projectile is not disrupted, craters initially grow somewhat proportionally, but that later their depths remain essentially constant while their diameters continue to expand. In addition, these experiments indicate that as the impact velocity increases, the rate of growth and the transient depth to diameter ratio at the end of ejecta excavation decreases. These last two observations are probably due to the large time of penetration of the projectile, which becomes a significant fraction of the time of crater formation. This is contrary to the expectations for the scaling rules, which assumes a point source. Very high curtain angles (>45°) are also seen, and could be due to the low friction angle of the target. Significant crater modification, which is rarely seen in "quarter-space experiments," is also observed and appears to be controlled by the dynamic angle of repose of the target. These latter observations indicate that differences in target friction angles may need to be considered when determining near rim ejecta-mass distributions and large-scale crater modification processes on the planets.

KW - Cratering

KW - Impact processes

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34247869797&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=34247869797&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.icarus.2007.01.009

DO - 10.1016/j.icarus.2007.01.009

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:34247869797

VL - 188

SP - 506

EP - 521

JO - Icarus

JF - Icarus

SN - 0019-1035

IS - 2

ER -