We experimentally demonstrate the validity of nonequilibrium fluctuation relations by using a quantum coherent conductor. In equilibrium the fluctuation-dissipation relation leads to the correlation between current and current noise at the conductor, namely, the Johnson-Nyquist relation. When the conductor is voltage biased so that the nonlinear regime is entered, the fluctuation theorem has predicted similar nonequilibrium fluctuation relations, which hold true even when the Onsager-Casmir relations are broken in magnetic fields. Our experiments qualitatively validate the predictions as the first evidence of this theorem in the nonequilibrium quantum regime.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)