Effects of cesium related reactions are investigated using a simulation code for [formula omitted] ion sources. Effects begin to appear when cesium density is [formula omitted] but are still small and become large when the cesium density is greater than [formula omitted] The [formula omitted] density decreases due to electron detachment. Decreasing the plasma potential by cesium seeding results in 12% smaller [formula omitted] density. The minimum of the plasma potential shown experimentally by Bacal is found to correspond to a cesium coverage of 50% with the use of Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Surface production is effective only when the cesium density is around [formula omitted] For cesium density greater than [formula omitted] the effect of the cesium related volume reaction becomes larger.
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