Observation of the spin Seebeck effect

K. Uchida, S. Takahashi, K. Harii, J. Ieda, W. Koshibae, Kazuya Ando, S. Maekawa, E. Saitoh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1142 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The generation of electric voltage by placing a conductor in a temperature gradient is called the Seebeck effect. Its efficiency is represented by the Seebeck coefficient, S, which is defined as the ratio of the generated electric voltage to the temperature difference, and is determined by the scattering rate and the density of the conduction electrons. The effect can be exploited, for example, in thermal electric-power generators and for temperature sensing, by connecting two conductors with different Seebeck coefficients, a device called a thermocouple. Here we report the observation of the thermal generation of driving power, or voltage, for electron spin: the spin Seebeck effect. Using a recently developed spin-detection technique that involves the spin Hall effect, we measure the spin voltage generated from a temperature gradient in a metallic magnet. This thermally induced spin voltage persists even at distances far from the sample ends, and spins can be extracted from every position on the magnet simply by attaching a metal. The spin Seebeck effect observed here is directly applicable to the production of spin-voltage generators, which are crucial for driving spintronic devices. The spin Seebeck effect allows us to pass a pure spin current, a flow of electron spins without electric currents, over a long distance. These innovative capabilities will invigorate spintronics research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)778-781
Number of pages4
JournalNature
Volume455
Issue number7214
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Oct 9

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Observation
Temperature
Magnets
Electrons
Hot Temperature
Equipment and Supplies
Metals
Research

ASJC Scopus subject areas

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Cite this

Uchida, K., Takahashi, S., Harii, K., Ieda, J., Koshibae, W., Ando, K., ... Saitoh, E. (2008). Observation of the spin Seebeck effect. Nature, 455(7214), 778-781. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature07321

Observation of the spin Seebeck effect. / Uchida, K.; Takahashi, S.; Harii, K.; Ieda, J.; Koshibae, W.; Ando, Kazuya; Maekawa, S.; Saitoh, E.

In: Nature, Vol. 455, No. 7214, 09.10.2008, p. 778-781.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Uchida, K, Takahashi, S, Harii, K, Ieda, J, Koshibae, W, Ando, K, Maekawa, S & Saitoh, E 2008, 'Observation of the spin Seebeck effect', Nature, vol. 455, no. 7214, pp. 778-781. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature07321
Uchida K, Takahashi S, Harii K, Ieda J, Koshibae W, Ando K et al. Observation of the spin Seebeck effect. Nature. 2008 Oct 9;455(7214):778-781. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature07321
Uchida, K. ; Takahashi, S. ; Harii, K. ; Ieda, J. ; Koshibae, W. ; Ando, Kazuya ; Maekawa, S. ; Saitoh, E. / Observation of the spin Seebeck effect. In: Nature. 2008 ; Vol. 455, No. 7214. pp. 778-781.
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