Background: Cryosurgery has reemerged as a less invasive local treatment with possible immune-regulatory effects. However, the optimal magnitude of cryosurgery for achieving immune-regulatory responses at abscopal tumor sites remains unclear. We aimed to investigate appropriate magnitude of cryosurgery for this goal using a mouse model. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with Lewis lung carcinoma cells or B16 melanoma cells in bilateral flanks. The left-sided tumor was cryoablated with repeated freeze/thaw cycles either once, twice, or thrice. The peritumoral injections of LPS were performed. Abscopal tumor volumes were measured, immunohistochemistry was performed for CD4, CD8, Foxp3, and Ki-67, and proinflammatory cytokines were measured in lavage fluid of cryoablated tumor. Results: The growth rate of the abscopal tumor was slowest in the Cryosurgery ×2 group among the five experimental groups. The proportions of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells in the abscopal tumor were also significantly higher in the Cryosurgery ×2 group. The levels of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12β, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in the peritumoral lavage fluid in Cryosurgery ×2 + LPS group were significantly increased compared with the other groups. Conclusions: This study suggested that achievement of approximately 73 % damaged area in the cryoablated tumor by two cycles of cryosurgery generates the most favorable immune-regulatory response for abscopal tumors via activation of anti-tumor immune cells as well as increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines.
- Lung cancer
- Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy
- Cancer Research