This work reports on fully integrated “sample-in-signal-out” microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) relying on bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) switches for analyte recognition and colorimetric signal generation. The devices use BRET-based antibody sensing proteins integrated into vertically assembled layers of functionalized paper, and their design enables sample volume-independent and fully reagent-free operation, including on-device blood plasma separation. User operation is limited to the application of a single drop (20–30 μL) of sample (serum, whole blood) and the acquisition of a photograph 20 min after sample introduction, with no requirement for precise pipetting, liquid handling, or analytical equipment except for a camera. Simultaneous detection of three different antibodies (anti-HIV1, anti-HA, and anti-DEN1) in whole blood was achieved. Given its simplicity, this type of device is ideally suited for user-friendly point-of-care testing in low-resource environments.
- paper-based analytical devices
- point-of-care testing
- whole-blood analysis
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