Purpose: FoxP3+ Tregs inhibit immune responses against tumors. KW-0761 is a humanized anti-human CCR4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) that has antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity activity. Depletion of CCR4-expressing FoxP3+ CD4 Tregs by KW-0761 infusion was investigated in solid cancer patients. Experimental Design: We conducted a phase Ia clinical trial of KW-0761 infusion in 7 lung and 3 esophageal cancer patients. Toxicity, clinical efficacy, changes in lymphocyte subpopulations, includingTregs,andinductionofimmune responseswereanalyzed. Results: The results showed that KW-0761 infusion in a dose range between0.1mg/kg and 1.0mg/kgwas safe andwell tolerated. Nodose-limiting toxicitywas observed. Four of 10 patients showed stable disease during treatment and were long survivors. The monitoring of FoxP3+ Tregs in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells during treatment indicated efficient depletion of those cells, even at the lowest dose of 0.1 mg/kg used. The reduction in Th 1 CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells was limited, whereas a significant reduction was observed with Th 2 and Th 17 CD4 T cells. Immune responses to cancer/testis (CT) antigens and an autoantibody response to thyroid peroxidase were observed in some patients. Conclusions: The findings showed Tregs depletion and the possible occurrence of an immune response following KW-0761 infusion. Combined use of KW-0761 to deplete FoxP3+ Tregs with other immunotherapies, such as cancer vaccines or checkpoint inhibitors, is a promising approach to augment immune responses.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research