Phytotoxic substances with allelopathic activity may be central to the strong invasive potential of Brachiaria brizantha

Hisashi Kato-Noguchi, Ai Kobayashi, Osamu Ohno, Fukiko Kimura, Yoshiharu Fujii, Kiyotake Suenaga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The grass Brachiaria brizantha, native to eastern Africa, becomes naturalized and dominant quickly in the non-native areas. It was hypothesized that phytotoxic chemical interaction between this plant and native plants may play an important role in the invasion of B. brizantha. However, no potent phytotoxic substance has been reported in this species. Therefore, we investigated possible allelopathic activity and searched for phytotoxic substances with allelopathic activity in B. brizantha. An aqueous methanol extract of B. brizantha inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of garden cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), timothy (Phleum pratense) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seedlings. The extract was purified by several chromatographic runs and three allelopathically active substances were isolated and identified by spectral analysis as (6R,. 9R)-3-oxo-α-ionol, (6R,. 9S)-3-oxo-α-ionol and 4-ketopinoresinol. (6R,. 9R)-3-Oxo-α-ionol and (6R,. 9S)-3-oxo-α-ionol inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress at concentrations greater than 30 and 10. μM, respectively. The activity of (6R,. 9S)-3-oxo-α-ionol was 5.3- to 6.2-fold that of (6R,. 9R)-3-oxo-α-ionol. The stereochemistry of the hydroxyl group at position C-9 may be important for the inhibitory activities of those compounds. 4-Ketopinoresinol inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress at concentrations greater than 30. μM. The growth inhibitory activity of (6R,. 9S)-3-oxo-α-ionol was the greatest and followed by 4-ketopinoresinol and (6R,. 9R)-3-oxo-α-ionol. These results suggest that those phytotoxic substances may contribute to the allelopathic effect caused by B. brizantha and may be involved in the invasion of B. brizantha.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)525-530
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Plant Physiology
Volume171
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Apr 15

Fingerprint

Brachiaria
Butylated Hydroxytoluene
Urochloa brizantha
allelopathy
Lepidium sativum
Lettuce
Lolium
shoots
Growth
chemical interactions
Phleum pratense
Phleum
stereochemistry
Lolium multiflorum
extracts
Lactuca sativa
Eastern Africa
lettuce
spectral analysis
root growth

Keywords

  • Allelopathy
  • Brachiaria brizantha
  • Growth inhibitor
  • Invasive plant
  • Phytotoxin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Plant Science
  • Physiology
  • Agronomy and Crop Science

Cite this

Phytotoxic substances with allelopathic activity may be central to the strong invasive potential of Brachiaria brizantha. / Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Ai; Ohno, Osamu; Kimura, Fukiko; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Suenaga, Kiyotake.

In: Journal of Plant Physiology, Vol. 171, No. 7, 15.04.2014, p. 525-530.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi ; Kobayashi, Ai ; Ohno, Osamu ; Kimura, Fukiko ; Fujii, Yoshiharu ; Suenaga, Kiyotake. / Phytotoxic substances with allelopathic activity may be central to the strong invasive potential of Brachiaria brizantha. In: Journal of Plant Physiology. 2014 ; Vol. 171, No. 7. pp. 525-530.
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N2 - The grass Brachiaria brizantha, native to eastern Africa, becomes naturalized and dominant quickly in the non-native areas. It was hypothesized that phytotoxic chemical interaction between this plant and native plants may play an important role in the invasion of B. brizantha. However, no potent phytotoxic substance has been reported in this species. Therefore, we investigated possible allelopathic activity and searched for phytotoxic substances with allelopathic activity in B. brizantha. An aqueous methanol extract of B. brizantha inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of garden cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), timothy (Phleum pratense) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seedlings. The extract was purified by several chromatographic runs and three allelopathically active substances were isolated and identified by spectral analysis as (6R,. 9R)-3-oxo-α-ionol, (6R,. 9S)-3-oxo-α-ionol and 4-ketopinoresinol. (6R,. 9R)-3-Oxo-α-ionol and (6R,. 9S)-3-oxo-α-ionol inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress at concentrations greater than 30 and 10. μM, respectively. The activity of (6R,. 9S)-3-oxo-α-ionol was 5.3- to 6.2-fold that of (6R,. 9R)-3-oxo-α-ionol. The stereochemistry of the hydroxyl group at position C-9 may be important for the inhibitory activities of those compounds. 4-Ketopinoresinol inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress at concentrations greater than 30. μM. The growth inhibitory activity of (6R,. 9S)-3-oxo-α-ionol was the greatest and followed by 4-ketopinoresinol and (6R,. 9R)-3-oxo-α-ionol. These results suggest that those phytotoxic substances may contribute to the allelopathic effect caused by B. brizantha and may be involved in the invasion of B. brizantha.

AB - The grass Brachiaria brizantha, native to eastern Africa, becomes naturalized and dominant quickly in the non-native areas. It was hypothesized that phytotoxic chemical interaction between this plant and native plants may play an important role in the invasion of B. brizantha. However, no potent phytotoxic substance has been reported in this species. Therefore, we investigated possible allelopathic activity and searched for phytotoxic substances with allelopathic activity in B. brizantha. An aqueous methanol extract of B. brizantha inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of garden cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), timothy (Phleum pratense) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seedlings. The extract was purified by several chromatographic runs and three allelopathically active substances were isolated and identified by spectral analysis as (6R,. 9R)-3-oxo-α-ionol, (6R,. 9S)-3-oxo-α-ionol and 4-ketopinoresinol. (6R,. 9R)-3-Oxo-α-ionol and (6R,. 9S)-3-oxo-α-ionol inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress at concentrations greater than 30 and 10. μM, respectively. The activity of (6R,. 9S)-3-oxo-α-ionol was 5.3- to 6.2-fold that of (6R,. 9R)-3-oxo-α-ionol. The stereochemistry of the hydroxyl group at position C-9 may be important for the inhibitory activities of those compounds. 4-Ketopinoresinol inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress at concentrations greater than 30. μM. The growth inhibitory activity of (6R,. 9S)-3-oxo-α-ionol was the greatest and followed by 4-ketopinoresinol and (6R,. 9R)-3-oxo-α-ionol. These results suggest that those phytotoxic substances may contribute to the allelopathic effect caused by B. brizantha and may be involved in the invasion of B. brizantha.

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