Planar covariation of limb elevation angles during bipedal locomotion in common quails (Coturnix coturnix)

Naomichi Ogihara, Takaaki Oku, Emanuel Andrada, Reinhard Blickhan, John A. Nyakatura, Martin S. Fischer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In human bipedal walking, temporal changes in the elevation angle of the thigh, shank and foot segments covary to form a regular loop within a single plane in three-dimensional space. In this study, we quantified the planar covariation of limb elevation angles during bipedal locomotion in common quails to test whether the degree of planarity and the orientation of the covariance plane differ between birds, humans and Japanese macaques as reported in published accounts. Five quails locomoted on a treadmill and were recorded by a lateral X-ray fluoroscopy. The elevation angle of the thigh, shank and foot segments relative to the vertical axis was calculated and compared with published data on human and macaque bipedal locomotion. The results showed that the planar covariation applied to quail bipedal locomotion and planarity was stronger in quails than in humans. The orientation of the covariation plane in quails differed from that in humans, and was more similar to the orientation of the covariation plane in macaques. Although human walking is characterized by vaulting mechanics of the body center of mass, quails and macaques utilize spring-like running mechanics even though the duty factor is >0.5. Therefore, differences in the stance leg mechanics between quails and humans may underlie the difference in the orientation of the covariation plane. The planar covariation of inter-segmental coordination has evolved independently in both avian and human locomotion, despite the different mechanical constraints.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3968-3973
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Experimental Biology
Volume217
Issue number22
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Nov 1

Fingerprint

Coturnix coturnix
Coturnix
Quail
locomotion
Locomotion
quails
limbs (animal)
limb
Extremities
mechanics
Macaca
walking
Mechanics
thighs
Thigh
Walking
Foot
Macaca fuscata
Fluoroscopy
exercise equipment

Keywords

  • Grounded running
  • Human
  • Inter-segmental coordination
  • Kinematics
  • Macaque

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Physiology
  • Insect Science
  • Aquatic Science

Cite this

Ogihara, N., Oku, T., Andrada, E., Blickhan, R., Nyakatura, J. A., & Fischer, M. S. (2014). Planar covariation of limb elevation angles during bipedal locomotion in common quails (Coturnix coturnix). Journal of Experimental Biology, 217(22), 3968-3973. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.109355

Planar covariation of limb elevation angles during bipedal locomotion in common quails (Coturnix coturnix). / Ogihara, Naomichi; Oku, Takaaki; Andrada, Emanuel; Blickhan, Reinhard; Nyakatura, John A.; Fischer, Martin S.

In: Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 217, No. 22, 01.11.2014, p. 3968-3973.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ogihara, N, Oku, T, Andrada, E, Blickhan, R, Nyakatura, JA & Fischer, MS 2014, 'Planar covariation of limb elevation angles during bipedal locomotion in common quails (Coturnix coturnix)', Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 217, no. 22, pp. 3968-3973. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.109355
Ogihara, Naomichi ; Oku, Takaaki ; Andrada, Emanuel ; Blickhan, Reinhard ; Nyakatura, John A. ; Fischer, Martin S. / Planar covariation of limb elevation angles during bipedal locomotion in common quails (Coturnix coturnix). In: Journal of Experimental Biology. 2014 ; Vol. 217, No. 22. pp. 3968-3973.
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