Introduction: Denosumab has been shown to be highly effective at suppressing the progression of giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB). However, recent studies have observed a potential increased risk of local recurrence after surgery following the use of denosumab, raising concerns on the use of this agent against GCTB in combination with surgery. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 234 patients with GCTB who were surgically treated at multiple institutions from 1990 to 2017. Patient background, tumor characteristics, treatment methods, local recurrence-free survival rate, distant metastasis rate, oncologic outcome, and limb function at final follow-up were analyzed and compared between cases treated with and without denosumab. Results: The 3-year local recurrence-free survival rate was significantly lower in patients who underwent preoperative denosumab therapy (35.3%) compared with those treated without denosumab (79.9%) (P < 0.001). Among patients who were preoperatively treated with denosumab, those who had a local recurrence all underwent curettage surgery. Conclusions: Preoperative denosumab therapy in combination with curettage surgery was significantly associated with an increased risk of local recurrence in Campanacci grade 3 tumors. Our data suggest that clinicians seeing GCTB patients should be aware to this increased risk when planning preoperative denosumab therapy.
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