Problems on the Evaluation of the Critical Wavelength of Sunscreens for “Broad Spectrum” Approval Brought on by Viscous Fingering During Sunscreen Application

Misaki Wakabayashi, Kunihiko Okano, Tsubasa Mukawa, Daisuke Maezawa, Hitoshi Masaki, Akihiro Kuroda, Kouichi Asakura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

When a viscous liquid is applied to a solid substrate, a patterned liquid layer is usually formed by the phenomenon called viscous fingering, since the moving liquid surface is in far-from-equilibrium conditions to let the morphological fluctuation to grow. Pseudosunscreen solutions were prepared and applied on a flat quartz plate. A spatially periodic stripe pattern was formed on the pseudosunscreen layer when a block applicator was used, whereas a flat surface layer was formed when a four-sided applicator was used. UV absorbance of the patterned layer was lower than that of the flat layer having the same average thickness. In addition, a larger decrease in the UV absorbance by the pattern formation was observed at wavelengths at which the UV absorbance of the flat layer was large, which was consistent with theoretical simulations. In 2011, US FDA introduced a new rule using the term “Broad Spectrum” for labeling the sunscreens. The different decrease in the UV absorbance at each wavelength was found to change the critical wavelength, which is a criterion for sunscreens to be labeled as “Broad Spectrum” protection. The result of this study makes the problem on the evaluation of the critical wavelength come to the surface.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)637-643
Number of pages7
JournalPhotochemistry and Photobiology
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Jul 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Medicine(all)

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