Prognostic factors of surgical resection in middle and distal bile duct cancer: An analysis of 55 patients concerning the significance of ductal and radial margins

Yoshihiro Sakamoto, Tomoo Kosuge, Kazuaki Shimada, Tsuyoshi Sano, Hidenori Ojima, Junji Yamamoto, Susumu Yamasaki, Tadatoshi Takayama, Masatoshi Makuuchi

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Abstract

Background. The surgical outcome of middle and/or distal bile duct cancer remains unsatisfactory. Although the resectional margin is known to be a predictive factor, the prognostic significance of a positive ductal margin and other radial margin has never been evaluated independently. Methods. The clinicopathologic data of 55 patients who had undergone surgical resection for middle and/or distal bile duct cancer between 1987 and 2003 were reviewed retrospectively. The surgical procedures consisted of pancreatoduodenectomy in 42 patients (76%), extrahepatic bile duct resection in 8 patients (15%), major hemihepatectomy (Hx) in 3 patients (5%), and pancreatoduodenectomy plus Hx in 2 patients (4%). In all the patients, intraoperative diagnosis of the ductal margins was performed using frozen sections. Twenty-one clinicopathologic factors, including the status of the ductal margins and of other radial margins, were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results. The overall 5-year survival rate and the median survival time were 24% and 38 months, respectively. There were 4 (7%) postoperative deaths. Fifteen of the remaining 51 patients (29%) were determined to have positive hepatic-side ductal margins during operation, and 14 of them underwent additional resection of the bile duct (1.6[range, 1-3] times, on average). As a result, hepatic-side ductal margin (hm) and duodenal-side ductal margin were found to be positive in 6 and 0 patients on the final pathologic analysis, respectively. Two of the 6 patients (33%) with positive hm have developed ductal recurrence so far, but the status of hm was not found to be a significant predictor. The depth of neoplastic invasion into the bile duct wall, pancreatic invasion, radial margin, and blood transfusion were significant prognostic factors by the univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that the depth of neoplastic invasion and blood transfusion were the independent prognostic factors. Conclusions. In the treatment of middle and distal bile duct cancer, it is of importance to secure a negative radial margin, although it may be less beneficial to obtain a negative hm. Surgeons should make efforts to obtain negative radial margins and to avoid blood transfusion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)396-402
Number of pages7
JournalSurgery
Volume137
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Apr
Externally publishedYes

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Bile Duct Neoplasms
Blood Transfusion
Pancreaticoduodenectomy
Bile Ducts
Multivariate Analysis
Extrahepatic Bile Ducts
Liver
Frozen Sections
Statistical Factor Analysis
Survival Rate
Recurrence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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Prognostic factors of surgical resection in middle and distal bile duct cancer : An analysis of 55 patients concerning the significance of ductal and radial margins. / Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Kosuge, Tomoo; Shimada, Kazuaki; Sano, Tsuyoshi; Ojima, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Junji; Yamasaki, Susumu; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Makuuchi, Masatoshi.

In: Surgery, Vol. 137, No. 4, 04.2005, p. 396-402.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sakamoto, Yoshihiro ; Kosuge, Tomoo ; Shimada, Kazuaki ; Sano, Tsuyoshi ; Ojima, Hidenori ; Yamamoto, Junji ; Yamasaki, Susumu ; Takayama, Tadatoshi ; Makuuchi, Masatoshi. / Prognostic factors of surgical resection in middle and distal bile duct cancer : An analysis of 55 patients concerning the significance of ductal and radial margins. In: Surgery. 2005 ; Vol. 137, No. 4. pp. 396-402.
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abstract = "Background. The surgical outcome of middle and/or distal bile duct cancer remains unsatisfactory. Although the resectional margin is known to be a predictive factor, the prognostic significance of a positive ductal margin and other radial margin has never been evaluated independently. Methods. The clinicopathologic data of 55 patients who had undergone surgical resection for middle and/or distal bile duct cancer between 1987 and 2003 were reviewed retrospectively. The surgical procedures consisted of pancreatoduodenectomy in 42 patients (76{\%}), extrahepatic bile duct resection in 8 patients (15{\%}), major hemihepatectomy (Hx) in 3 patients (5{\%}), and pancreatoduodenectomy plus Hx in 2 patients (4{\%}). In all the patients, intraoperative diagnosis of the ductal margins was performed using frozen sections. Twenty-one clinicopathologic factors, including the status of the ductal margins and of other radial margins, were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results. The overall 5-year survival rate and the median survival time were 24{\%} and 38 months, respectively. There were 4 (7{\%}) postoperative deaths. Fifteen of the remaining 51 patients (29{\%}) were determined to have positive hepatic-side ductal margins during operation, and 14 of them underwent additional resection of the bile duct (1.6[range, 1-3] times, on average). As a result, hepatic-side ductal margin (hm) and duodenal-side ductal margin were found to be positive in 6 and 0 patients on the final pathologic analysis, respectively. Two of the 6 patients (33{\%}) with positive hm have developed ductal recurrence so far, but the status of hm was not found to be a significant predictor. The depth of neoplastic invasion into the bile duct wall, pancreatic invasion, radial margin, and blood transfusion were significant prognostic factors by the univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that the depth of neoplastic invasion and blood transfusion were the independent prognostic factors. Conclusions. In the treatment of middle and distal bile duct cancer, it is of importance to secure a negative radial margin, although it may be less beneficial to obtain a negative hm. Surgeons should make efforts to obtain negative radial margins and to avoid blood transfusion.",
author = "Yoshihiro Sakamoto and Tomoo Kosuge and Kazuaki Shimada and Tsuyoshi Sano and Hidenori Ojima and Junji Yamamoto and Susumu Yamasaki and Tadatoshi Takayama and Masatoshi Makuuchi",
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T1 - Prognostic factors of surgical resection in middle and distal bile duct cancer

T2 - An analysis of 55 patients concerning the significance of ductal and radial margins

AU - Sakamoto, Yoshihiro

AU - Kosuge, Tomoo

AU - Shimada, Kazuaki

AU - Sano, Tsuyoshi

AU - Ojima, Hidenori

AU - Yamamoto, Junji

AU - Yamasaki, Susumu

AU - Takayama, Tadatoshi

AU - Makuuchi, Masatoshi

PY - 2005/4

Y1 - 2005/4

N2 - Background. The surgical outcome of middle and/or distal bile duct cancer remains unsatisfactory. Although the resectional margin is known to be a predictive factor, the prognostic significance of a positive ductal margin and other radial margin has never been evaluated independently. Methods. The clinicopathologic data of 55 patients who had undergone surgical resection for middle and/or distal bile duct cancer between 1987 and 2003 were reviewed retrospectively. The surgical procedures consisted of pancreatoduodenectomy in 42 patients (76%), extrahepatic bile duct resection in 8 patients (15%), major hemihepatectomy (Hx) in 3 patients (5%), and pancreatoduodenectomy plus Hx in 2 patients (4%). In all the patients, intraoperative diagnosis of the ductal margins was performed using frozen sections. Twenty-one clinicopathologic factors, including the status of the ductal margins and of other radial margins, were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results. The overall 5-year survival rate and the median survival time were 24% and 38 months, respectively. There were 4 (7%) postoperative deaths. Fifteen of the remaining 51 patients (29%) were determined to have positive hepatic-side ductal margins during operation, and 14 of them underwent additional resection of the bile duct (1.6[range, 1-3] times, on average). As a result, hepatic-side ductal margin (hm) and duodenal-side ductal margin were found to be positive in 6 and 0 patients on the final pathologic analysis, respectively. Two of the 6 patients (33%) with positive hm have developed ductal recurrence so far, but the status of hm was not found to be a significant predictor. The depth of neoplastic invasion into the bile duct wall, pancreatic invasion, radial margin, and blood transfusion were significant prognostic factors by the univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that the depth of neoplastic invasion and blood transfusion were the independent prognostic factors. Conclusions. In the treatment of middle and distal bile duct cancer, it is of importance to secure a negative radial margin, although it may be less beneficial to obtain a negative hm. Surgeons should make efforts to obtain negative radial margins and to avoid blood transfusion.

AB - Background. The surgical outcome of middle and/or distal bile duct cancer remains unsatisfactory. Although the resectional margin is known to be a predictive factor, the prognostic significance of a positive ductal margin and other radial margin has never been evaluated independently. Methods. The clinicopathologic data of 55 patients who had undergone surgical resection for middle and/or distal bile duct cancer between 1987 and 2003 were reviewed retrospectively. The surgical procedures consisted of pancreatoduodenectomy in 42 patients (76%), extrahepatic bile duct resection in 8 patients (15%), major hemihepatectomy (Hx) in 3 patients (5%), and pancreatoduodenectomy plus Hx in 2 patients (4%). In all the patients, intraoperative diagnosis of the ductal margins was performed using frozen sections. Twenty-one clinicopathologic factors, including the status of the ductal margins and of other radial margins, were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results. The overall 5-year survival rate and the median survival time were 24% and 38 months, respectively. There were 4 (7%) postoperative deaths. Fifteen of the remaining 51 patients (29%) were determined to have positive hepatic-side ductal margins during operation, and 14 of them underwent additional resection of the bile duct (1.6[range, 1-3] times, on average). As a result, hepatic-side ductal margin (hm) and duodenal-side ductal margin were found to be positive in 6 and 0 patients on the final pathologic analysis, respectively. Two of the 6 patients (33%) with positive hm have developed ductal recurrence so far, but the status of hm was not found to be a significant predictor. The depth of neoplastic invasion into the bile duct wall, pancreatic invasion, radial margin, and blood transfusion were significant prognostic factors by the univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that the depth of neoplastic invasion and blood transfusion were the independent prognostic factors. Conclusions. In the treatment of middle and distal bile duct cancer, it is of importance to secure a negative radial margin, although it may be less beneficial to obtain a negative hm. Surgeons should make efforts to obtain negative radial margins and to avoid blood transfusion.

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