The Japan Marrow Donor Program (JMDP) has facilitated unrelated peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (URPBSCT) since 2010. We conducted a prospective multicenter observational study to evaluate the feasibility of such transplantation. Between 2011 and 2014, 51 patients underwent URPBSCT from 8/8 allele-matched donors for hematological malignancies. The median age of the patients was 50 years; 21 had high-risk disease. Myeloablative conditioning regimens were used in 31 patients, and tacrolimus based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was used for all patients. The cumulative rate of engraftment was 96%. With a median follow-up period of 610 days for survivors, 100-day and 1-year overall survival rates were 86 and 59%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality and relapse at 1 year were 14 and 35%, respectively. The incidence of grade II to IV acute GVHD at 100 days and extensive type of chronic GVHD at 1 year were 25 and 32%, respectively. The probability of overall survival was comparable with that of bone marrow transplantation from HLA matched-unrelated donors in Japan, although the incidence of chronic GVHD was higher. Further follow-up with more patients is clearly warranted to establish the optimal use of URPBSCT together with the approaches of minimizing chronic GVHD.
- Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation
- Peripheral blood stem cell
- Unrelated donor
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