Quantification of vertical free moment induced by the human foot–ankle complex during axial loading

Hiroyuki Seki, Takeo Nagura, Yasunori Suda, Naomichi Ogihara, Kohta Ito, Yasuo Niki, Morio Matsumoto, Masaya Nakamura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Axial loading of the human cadaver lower leg is known to generate eversion of the calcaneus and internal rotation of the tibia if the plantar surface of the foot does not slide on the floor. Such kinematic coupling between calcaneal eversion and internal tibial rotation has been described previously, but no studies have actually quantified the innate ability of the human foot to generate ground reaction moment around the vertical axis of the floor (vertical free moment) due to axial loading of the human cadaver lower leg. This study investigated the vertical free moment generated by eight cadaveric lower leg specimens loaded vertically with traction of the Achilles’ tendon using a six-component force plate. The vertical free moments in all specimens were oriented toward the direction of internal rotation, and the mean magnitude of the vertical free moments was −1.66 N m when an axial load of 450 N was applied. A relatively large ground reaction moment can be applied to the body during walking due to the innate structural mobility of the foot. The structurally embedded capacity of the human foot to generate the vertical free moment may facilitate compensation of the moment generated around the vertical axis of the body during walking due to trunk rotation and leg swing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)637-640
Number of pages4
JournalProceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Volume232
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jun 1

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Axial loads
Tendons
Kinematics
Compensation and Redress

Keywords

  • Cadaver
  • ground reaction force
  • kinetics
  • loading response models
  • vertical free moment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

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title = "Quantification of vertical free moment induced by the human foot–ankle complex during axial loading",
abstract = "Axial loading of the human cadaver lower leg is known to generate eversion of the calcaneus and internal rotation of the tibia if the plantar surface of the foot does not slide on the floor. Such kinematic coupling between calcaneal eversion and internal tibial rotation has been described previously, but no studies have actually quantified the innate ability of the human foot to generate ground reaction moment around the vertical axis of the floor (vertical free moment) due to axial loading of the human cadaver lower leg. This study investigated the vertical free moment generated by eight cadaveric lower leg specimens loaded vertically with traction of the Achilles’ tendon using a six-component force plate. The vertical free moments in all specimens were oriented toward the direction of internal rotation, and the mean magnitude of the vertical free moments was −1.66 N m when an axial load of 450 N was applied. A relatively large ground reaction moment can be applied to the body during walking due to the innate structural mobility of the foot. The structurally embedded capacity of the human foot to generate the vertical free moment may facilitate compensation of the moment generated around the vertical axis of the body during walking due to trunk rotation and leg swing.",
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AU - Nagura, Takeo

AU - Suda, Yasunori

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AU - Ito, Kohta

AU - Niki, Yasuo

AU - Matsumoto, Morio

AU - Nakamura, Masaya

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N2 - Axial loading of the human cadaver lower leg is known to generate eversion of the calcaneus and internal rotation of the tibia if the plantar surface of the foot does not slide on the floor. Such kinematic coupling between calcaneal eversion and internal tibial rotation has been described previously, but no studies have actually quantified the innate ability of the human foot to generate ground reaction moment around the vertical axis of the floor (vertical free moment) due to axial loading of the human cadaver lower leg. This study investigated the vertical free moment generated by eight cadaveric lower leg specimens loaded vertically with traction of the Achilles’ tendon using a six-component force plate. The vertical free moments in all specimens were oriented toward the direction of internal rotation, and the mean magnitude of the vertical free moments was −1.66 N m when an axial load of 450 N was applied. A relatively large ground reaction moment can be applied to the body during walking due to the innate structural mobility of the foot. The structurally embedded capacity of the human foot to generate the vertical free moment may facilitate compensation of the moment generated around the vertical axis of the body during walking due to trunk rotation and leg swing.

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