Rationale and design of the standard versus intensive statin therapy for hypercholesterolemic patients with diabetic retinopathy (EMPATHY) study: A randomized controlled trial

Kenji Ueshima, Hiroshi Itoh, Nobuaki Kanazawa, Issei Komuro, Ryozo Nagai, Masahiro Takeuchi, Tsutomu Yamazaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)


Aim: Hyperlipidemia and diabetic retinopathy increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The standard versus intEnsive statin therapy for hypercholesteroleMic Patients with diAbetic retinopaTHY (EMPATHY) study examines whether intensive lipid-lowering therapy is superior to standard therapy in reducing the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with hyperlipidemia and diabetic retinopathy, but without a history of coronary artery disease. Methods: Patients who had elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and diabetic retinopathy without a history of coronary artery disease were eligible for the study. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive intensive or standard therapy. Patients are being treated with monotherapy with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin) for a maximum of 5.5 years to achieve the following LDL-C target:

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)976-990
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2016



  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Dyslipidemia
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors
  • Primary prevention
  • Randomized controlled trial

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Internal Medicine
  • Biochemistry, medical

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