Gastric varices (GVs) are a major complication of portal hypertension in patients with liver cirrhosis. The mortality rate associated with the bleeding from GVs is not low. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) was first introduced by Kanagawa et al. as a treatment for isolated GVs in 1994. It has been performed most frequently in Asia, especially in Japan. Ethanolamine oleate was the original sclerosant used in the therapy. Since the late 2000s, BRTO using sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam or polidocanol foam as a sclerosant has been performed in many countries other than Japan. Then, early in the 2010s, modified BRTO techniques including vascular plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration and coil-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration were developed as an alternative treatment for GVs. This article provides a historical overview of BRTO using various sclerosants and modified BRTO techniques, such as plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration and coil-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration.
|Journal||Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Australia)|
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - 2018 Jan 1|
- balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration
- ethanolamine oleate
- sodium tetradecyl sulfate
- vascular plug
ASJC Scopus subject areas