Background: Coexistence of aspergilloma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) has rarely been reported. Although the treatment for ABPA includes administration of corticosteroids and antifungal agents, little is known about the treatment for coexisting aspergilloma and ABPA. Furthermore, the impact of surgical resection for aspergilloma on ABPA is not fully understood. Here, we present an interesting case of recurrent ABPA with long-term follow-up after surgical resection of aspergilloma. Case presentation: A 53-year-old man with a medical history of tuberculosis was referred to our hospital with cough and dyspnea. Imaging revealed multiple cavitary lesions in the right upper lobe of the lung, with a fungus ball and mucoid impaction. The eosinophil count, total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), and Aspergillus-specific IgE levels were elevated. Specimens collected on bronchoscopy revealed fungal filaments compatible with Aspergillus species. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of ABPA with concomitant aspergilloma was made. Although treatment with corticosteroids and antifungal agents was administered, the patient's respiratory symptoms persisted. Therefore, he underwent lobectomy of the right upper lobe, which resulted in a stable condition without the need for medication. Twenty-three months after discontinuation of medical treatment, his respiratory symptoms gradually worsened with a recurrence of elevated eosinophil count and total serum IgE. Imaging revealed recurrent bronchiectasis and cavities with mucoid impaction in the right lower lobe, suggesting relapse of aspergilloma and ABPA. Corticosteroids and antifungal agents were re-administered; aspergilloma improved slightly over a 5-year period, and ABPA remained well controlled with low-dose prednisolone (5 mg/day). Conclusions: We describe the long-term follow-up outcomes of a patient with concomitant ABPA and aspergilloma, who underwent surgical resection for aspergilloma. Physicians should carefully monitor patients with coexisting ABPA and aspergilloma, as the condition may relapse after remission, even despite surgical resection for aspergilloma. Additionally, surgical resection for aspergilloma could result in resolution of ABPA.
- Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
- Pulmonary Aspergillus overlap syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine