p21(WAF1/CIP1) is a universal cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor, the expression of which is regulated by p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways. We examined p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression in and p53 status of 21 primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and by PCR single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis. p21(WAF1/CIP1) messenger RNA expression was reduced markedly in 8 of 21 HCCs (38.1%) and 5 of these 8 HCCs bore p53 mutations. The relative p21(WAF1/CIP1) messenger RNA expression value of HCCs with p53 mutations (.73 ± .13 U, n = 6) was significantly lower than that of HCCs with wild-type p53 (1.00 ± 0.21 U, n = 14; P < .01). The p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression levels in cancerous tissues (.73 ± .13 U) were significantly reduced in comparison with those in noncancerous tissues (.97 ± .13 U) (P < .01) in the 6 cases with p53 mutations. These data indicate that p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression in HCCs is predominantly regulated by dependence on p53 and that reduced p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression may participate in hepatocarcinogenesis.
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