Reference intervals and discrimination values of the Lanthony desaturated D-15 panel test in young to middle-aged Japanese army officials: The Okubo Color Study Report 1

T. Shoji, Y. Sakurai, E. Chihara, S. Nishikawa, K. Omae

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6 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: To better understand the reference values and adequate discrimination values of colour vision function with described quantitative systems for the Lanthony desaturated D-15 panel (D-15DS).MethodsA total of 1042 Japanese male officials were interviewed and underwent testing using Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates, standard pseudoisochromatic plates part 2, and the D-15DS. The Farnsworth-Munsell (F-M) 100-hue test and the criteria of Verriest et al were used as definitive tests. Outcomes of the D-15DS were calculated using Bowman's Colour Confusion Index (CCI). The study design included two criteria. In criterion A, subjects with current or past ocular disease and a best-corrected visual acuity less than 0.7 on a decimal visual acuity chart were excluded. In criterion B, among subjects who satisfied criterion A, those who had a congenital colour sense anomaly were excluded.ResultsOverall, the 90th percentile (95th percentile) CCI values for criteria A and B in the worse eye were 1.70 (1.95) and 1.59 (1.73), respectively. In subjects satisfying criterion B, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.951 (95% confidence interval, 0.931-0.971). The CCI discrimination values of 1.52 or 1.63 showed 90.3% sensitivity and 90% specificity, or 71.5% sensitivity and 95% specificity, respectively, for discriminating acquired colour vision impairment (ACVI).ConclusionWe provided the 90th and 95th percentiles in a young to middle-aged healthy population. The CCI is in good agreement with the diagnosis of ACVI. Our results could be helpful for using D-15DS for screening purposes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1329-1335
Number of pages7
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Jun



  • Colour confusion index
  • Colour discrimination function
  • Discrimination value
  • Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test
  • Lanthony desaturated D-15 pane test
  • Reference interval

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems

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