Regeneration of the damaged central nervous system through reprogramming technology

Basic concepts and potential application for cell replacement therapy

Takeshi Matsui, Wado Akamatsu, Masaya Nakamura, Hideyuki Okano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation provides a new approach for the repair of damage to the central nervous system (CNS), including that resulting from cerebral infarction and spinal cord injury (SCI). In the past, there were no reputable means of converting non-neural somatic cells into neural cells. This status was overturned by the establishment of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, which have pluripotency akin to that of embryonic stem (ES) cells and can differentiate into most cells of the three germ layers. If differentiated somatic cells could be reprogrammed into iPS cells, and if these iPS cells could be induced to differentiate once again, it would be theoretically possible to obtain a large number of neural cells. However, this is not yet feasible due to the limitations of existing stem cell technology. Induction of neural cells from iPS cells is currently hindered by two distinct problems: 1) the preparation of specific types of targeted neural cells requires extensive cell culture, and 2) tumors are likely to form due to the presence of residual undifferentiated cells following transplantation of the induced cells. By contrast, direct induction methods permit the generation of target cells from somatic cells without the transitional iPS cell stage. This review outlines the present-day status of research surrounding the direct induction of NSCs from somatic cells, as well as the perspectives for the future clinical application of this technique for cell replacement therapy following CNS injury.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12-18
Number of pages7
JournalExperimental Neurology
Volume260
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Oct 1

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Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy
Regeneration
Central Nervous System
Technology
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Nervous System Trauma
Germ Layers
Neural Stem Cells
Cell Transplantation
Cerebral Infarction
Stem Cell Transplantation
Embryonic Stem Cells
Spinal Cord Injuries
Stem Cells
Cell Culture Techniques
Cell Count

Keywords

  • Direct induction
  • Glia
  • Induced pluripotent stem cell
  • Neural stem cell
  • Neuron
  • Reprogramming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Developmental Neuroscience

Cite this

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