Relationship between polydipsia and antipsychotics: A systematic review of clinical studies and case reports

So Kirino, Mutsuki Sakuma, Fuminari Misawa, Yasuo Fujii, Hiroyuki Uchida, Masaru Mimura, Hiroyoshi Takeuchi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: This systematic review aimed to elucidate the relationship between polydipsia and antipsychotics. Methods: We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO, and included clinical studies and case reports on polydipsia induced or improved by antipsychotics. Results: We identified 61 articles: 1 double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT), 4 single-arm trials, 1 cross-sectional study, 3 case series, and 52 case reports. The double-blind RCT demonstrated no significant difference in improvement in polydipsia between olanzapine and haloperidol. Two single-arm trials showed that polydipsia improved during clozapine treatment, whereas the other 2 showed that risperidone did not improve polydipsia. The cross-sectional study showed the prevalence of hyponatremia with first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs: 26.1%) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs: 4.9%). Two case series reported that clozapine improved polydipsia; the other one indicated that patients with polydipsia who were treated with FGAs had schizophrenia (70.4%) and mental retardation (25.9%). Of 90 cases in the case reports, 67 (75.3%) were diagnosed with schizophrenia. Of 83 cases in which antipsychotic treatment started before the onset of polydipsia, 75 (90.3%) received FGAs, particularly haloperidol (n = 24, 28.9%), and 11 (13.3%) received risperidone. Among 40 cases in which polydipsia was improved following antipsychotic treatment, 36 (90.0%) received SGAs, primarily clozapine (n = 14, 35.0%). Conclusions: Although the causal relationship between polydipsia and antipsychotics remains unclear because of the paucity of high-quality studies, antipsychotics with high affinity to dopamine D2 receptors may be associated with an increased risk of polydipsia while clozapine may be effective for treating polydipsia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109756
JournalProgress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jan 10


  • Antipsychotics
  • Clozapine
  • Polydipsia
  • Water intoxication

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Biological Psychiatry


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