Relationship between the urinary Na/K ratio, diet and hypertension among community-dwelling older adults

Noriko Yamanaka, Mitsuyo Itabashi, Yoshinori Fujiwara, Yu Nofuji, Takumi Abe, Akihiko Kitamura, Shoji Shinkai, Toru Takebayashi, Takashi Takei

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The association between the urinary sodium (Na)/potassium (K) ratio and hypertension is well recognized. We investigated whether the urinary Na/K ratio might be associated with hypertension in community-dwelling older adults and whether the association was influenced by habitual dietary patterns. We enrolled a total of 684 older adults (mean age, 76.8 years) and conducted health examinations at Kusatsu, Japan, in 2021. The urinary Na/K ratio was found to be independently associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p < 0.0001), years of education (p = 0.0027), number of cohabitants (p = 0.0175), estimated glomerular filtrate rate (eGFR) (p = 0.0244), and Geriatric Depression Scale short-version (GDS15) score (p = 0.0366). In addition, an unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis revealed a spectrum of habitual dietary patterns for higher and lower values of the urinary Na/K ratio. The decision tree indicated that the urinary Na/K ratio was associated with the history of milk consumption. A positive history of daily milk consumption predicted a mean urinary Na/K ratio of 2.8, and a negative history of daily milk consumption predicted a mean urinary Na/K ratio of 3.3. Furthermore, the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption also predicted the urinary Na/K ratio. The relationship between the urinary Na/K ratio and hypertension was influenced by the frequency of consumption of milk, fruits, and vegetables in the subjects. This finding might be due to the influence of education and/or depression. The results suggested the importance of nutritional education in the development of hypertension. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
JournalHypertension Research
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022

Keywords

  • Habitual diet
  • Hypertension
  • Milk
  • Urinary Na/K ratio

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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