Relationship of three different types of low-carbohydrate diet to cardiometabolic risk factors in a Japanese population: the INTERMAP/INTERLIPID Study

Yasuyuki Nakamura, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Nagako Okuda, Katsuyuki Miura, Yoshikuni Kita, Naoko Miyagawa, Katsushi Yoshita, Hideaki Nakagawa, Kiyomi Sakata, Shigeyuki Saitoh, Tomonori Okamura, Akira Okayama, Sohel R. Choudhry, Beatriz Rodriguez, Kamal H. Masaki, Queenie Chan, Paul Elliott, Jeremiah Stamler

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2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: Low-carbohydrate diets (LCD) are a popular dietary strategy for weight reduction. The effects of LCD on long-term outcome vary depending on type of LCD, possibly due to the fact that effects on cardiometabolic risk factors may vary with different types of LCD. Accordingly, we studied these relations. Methods: We assessed serum concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol, glycated hemoglobin, and uric acid, and nutrient intakes by standardized methods in men and women ages 40–59 years from four population samples of Japanese in Japan (553 men and 544 women, combined). For people consuming usual, animal-based, and plant-based LCDs, we calculated LCD scores, based on relative level of fat, protein, and carbohydrate, by modifying the methods of Halton et al. Instead of calculating scores based on animal or vegetable fat, we used saturated fatty acids (SFA) or monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) + polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Results: In multivariate regression analyses with adjustment for site, age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, and years of education, all three LCD scores were significantly positively related to HDLc (all P < 0.001), but not to LDLc. The plant-based LCD score was significantly inversely related to log CRP (coefficient = −0.010, P = 0.018). Conclusions: All three LCD scores were significantly positively related to HDLc. The plant-based LCD score was significantly inversely related to CRP. Carbohydrate intake below 50 % of total energy with higher intakes of vegetable protein and MUFA + PUFA, and lower intakes of SFA may be favorable for reducing cardiometabolic risk factors.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2015 Jun 29

Keywords

  • C-reactive protein
  • Cardiometabolic risk factors
  • High-density lipoprotein cholesterol
  • Low-carbohydrate diet

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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    Nakamura, Y., Ueshima, H., Okuda, N., Miura, K., Kita, Y., Miyagawa, N., Yoshita, K., Nakagawa, H., Sakata, K., Saitoh, S., Okamura, T., Okayama, A., Choudhry, S. R., Rodriguez, B., Masaki, K. H., Chan, Q., Elliott, P., & Stamler, J. (Accepted/In press). Relationship of three different types of low-carbohydrate diet to cardiometabolic risk factors in a Japanese population: the INTERMAP/INTERLIPID Study. European Journal of Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-015-0969-z