Simple objective modalities are required for evaluating suspected autoimmune gastritis (AIG). This cross-sectional study aimed to examine whether pepsinogen, gastrin, and endoscopic findings can predict AIG. The diagnostic performance of endoscopic findings and serology in distinguishing AIG was evaluated. AIG was diagnosed in patients (N = 31) with anti-parietal cell antibody and/or intrinsic factor antibody positivity and histological findings consistent with AIG. Non-AIG patients (N = 301) were seronegative for anti-parietal cell antibodies. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of the entire cohort (N = 332) identified an endoscopic atrophic grade cutoff point of O3 on the Kimura–Takemoto classification (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.909), while those of pepsinogen-I, I/II ratio, and gastrin were 20.1 ng/mL (AUC: 0.932), 1.8 (AUC: 0.913), and 355 pg/mL (AUC: 0.912), respectively. In severe atrophy cases (≥ O3, N = 58, AIG/control; 27/31), the cutoff values of pepsinogen-I, I/II ratio, and gastrin were 9.8 ng/mL (AUC: 0.895), 1.8 (AUC: 0.86), and 355 pg/mL (AUC: 0.897), respectively. In conclusion, endoscopic atrophy is a predictor of AIG. High serum gastrin and low pepsinogen-I and I/II ratio are predictors even in the case of severe atrophy, suggesting their usefulness when the diagnosis of AIG is difficult or as serological screening tests.
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