Removal of amino-terminal extracellular domains of desmoglein 1 by staphylococcal exfoliative toxin is sufficient to initiate epidermal blister formation

Koji Nishifuji, Atsushi Shimizu, Akira Ishiko, Toshiroh Iwasaki, Masayuki Amagai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: In both bullous impetigo and staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome (SSSS), exfoliative toxins (ETs) produced by Staphylococcus aureus cause superficial intraepidermal blisters. ETs are known to cleave specifically a single peptide bond in the extracellular domains 3 and 4 of desmoglein (Dsg) 1. However, the precise mechanisms underlying ET-induced epidermal blister formation remain poorly understood. Objective: To determine whether cleavage of Dsg1 by an ET is sufficient to induce blister formation in vivo or if the subsequent internalization of cleaved Dsg1 or other desmosomal components is required. Methods: Skin samples obtained from neonatal mice injected with ETA were analyzed by time-lapse immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy for desmosomal components. Results: Epidermal blister formation was observed as early as 60. min after ETA treatment. At this time, the amino-terminal extracellular domains of Dsg1 disappeared from the surface of keratinocytes, while the cleaved carboxy-terminal domain of Dsg1 (Dsg1-C) as well as the extracellular domains of desmocollin 1 (Dsc1-N) remained on the cell surface. Half-split desmosomes with intracytoplasmic dense plaques and attached tonofilaments were recognized ultrastructurally on the split surface of keratinocytes at 60. min. Subsequent to this, Dsg1-C and Dsc1-N gradually disappeared from the surface layer of keratinocytes. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the removal of amino-terminal extracellular domains of Dsg1 by ETs is sufficient to initiate epidermal blister formation in bullous impetigo and SSSS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)184-191
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Dermatological Science
Volume59
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Sep

Fingerprint

Exfoliatins
Desmoglein 1
Blister
Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome
Keratinocytes
Impetigo
Skin
Desmocollins
Desmosomes
Intermediate Filaments
Transmission Electron Microscopy
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Staphylococcus aureus
Transmission electron microscopy
Peptides

Keywords

  • Desmoglein
  • Desmosome
  • Exfoliative toxin
  • Impetigo
  • Staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome
  • Staphylococcus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

Removal of amino-terminal extracellular domains of desmoglein 1 by staphylococcal exfoliative toxin is sufficient to initiate epidermal blister formation. / Nishifuji, Koji; Shimizu, Atsushi; Ishiko, Akira; Iwasaki, Toshiroh; Amagai, Masayuki.

In: Journal of Dermatological Science, Vol. 59, No. 3, 09.2010, p. 184-191.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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N2 - Background: In both bullous impetigo and staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome (SSSS), exfoliative toxins (ETs) produced by Staphylococcus aureus cause superficial intraepidermal blisters. ETs are known to cleave specifically a single peptide bond in the extracellular domains 3 and 4 of desmoglein (Dsg) 1. However, the precise mechanisms underlying ET-induced epidermal blister formation remain poorly understood. Objective: To determine whether cleavage of Dsg1 by an ET is sufficient to induce blister formation in vivo or if the subsequent internalization of cleaved Dsg1 or other desmosomal components is required. Methods: Skin samples obtained from neonatal mice injected with ETA were analyzed by time-lapse immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy for desmosomal components. Results: Epidermal blister formation was observed as early as 60. min after ETA treatment. At this time, the amino-terminal extracellular domains of Dsg1 disappeared from the surface of keratinocytes, while the cleaved carboxy-terminal domain of Dsg1 (Dsg1-C) as well as the extracellular domains of desmocollin 1 (Dsc1-N) remained on the cell surface. Half-split desmosomes with intracytoplasmic dense plaques and attached tonofilaments were recognized ultrastructurally on the split surface of keratinocytes at 60. min. Subsequent to this, Dsg1-C and Dsc1-N gradually disappeared from the surface layer of keratinocytes. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the removal of amino-terminal extracellular domains of Dsg1 by ETs is sufficient to initiate epidermal blister formation in bullous impetigo and SSSS.

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