Angiomyolipoma is the most common benign solid renal neoplasm observed in clinical practice. Once thought to be a hamartoma and almost always diagnosed by the imaged-based detection of fat, angiomyolipomas are now known to consist of a heterogeneous group of neoplasms. Although all are considered perivascular epithelioid cell tumors, many display different pathology, imaging features, and clinical behavior. The importance of understanding this group of neoplasms is emphasized by the fact that many types of angiomyolipoma contain little to no fat, and despite being benign, sometimes escape a pre-operative diagnosis. These types of angiomyolipomas can all be considered when encountering a renal mass that is both hyperattenuating relative to renal parenchyma on unenhanced CT and T2-hypointense, features that reflect their predominant smooth muscle component. We review recent developments and provide a radiological classification of angiomyolipomas that helps physicians understand the various types and learn how to both diagnose and manage them.
- AML with minimal fat
- Fat poor AML
- Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors
- Renal cell carcinoma
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging