Reprogramming of Th1 cells into regulatory T cells through rewiring of the metabolic status

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Abstract

T helper type 1 (Th1) cells form one of the most stable CD4 T-cell subsets, and direct conversion of fully differentiated Th1 to regulatory T (Treg) cells has been poorly investigated. Here, we established a culture method for inducing Foxp3 from Th1 cells of mice and humans. This is achieved simply by resting Th1 cells without T-cell receptor ligation before stimulation in the presence of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß). We named the resulting Th1-derived Foxp3+ cells Th1reg cells. Mouse Th1reg cells showed an inducible Treg-like phenotype and suppressive ability both in vitro and in vivo. Th1reg cells could also be induced from in vivo-developed mouse Th1 cells. Unexpectedly, the resting process enabled Foxp3 expression not through epigenetic changes at the locus, but through metabolic change resulting from reduced mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity. mTORC1 suppressed TGF-ß-induced phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in Th1 cells, which was restored in rested cells. Our study warrants future research aiming at development of immunotherapy with Th1reg cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)357-373
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Immunology
Volume30
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jan 1

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Th1 Cells
Regulatory T-Lymphocytes
Transforming Growth Factor beta
T-Lymphocyte Subsets
T-Cell Antigen Receptor
Epigenomics
Immunotherapy
Ligation
Phosphorylation
Phenotype

Keywords

  • MTOR
  • TGF-ß

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

Cite this

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title = "Reprogramming of Th1 cells into regulatory T cells through rewiring of the metabolic status",
abstract = "T helper type 1 (Th1) cells form one of the most stable CD4 T-cell subsets, and direct conversion of fully differentiated Th1 to regulatory T (Treg) cells has been poorly investigated. Here, we established a culture method for inducing Foxp3 from Th1 cells of mice and humans. This is achieved simply by resting Th1 cells without T-cell receptor ligation before stimulation in the presence of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-{\ss}). We named the resulting Th1-derived Foxp3+ cells Th1reg cells. Mouse Th1reg cells showed an inducible Treg-like phenotype and suppressive ability both in vitro and in vivo. Th1reg cells could also be induced from in vivo-developed mouse Th1 cells. Unexpectedly, the resting process enabled Foxp3 expression not through epigenetic changes at the locus, but through metabolic change resulting from reduced mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity. mTORC1 suppressed TGF-{\ss}-induced phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in Th1 cells, which was restored in rested cells. Our study warrants future research aiming at development of immunotherapy with Th1reg cells.",
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author = "Mitsuhiro Kanamori and Hiroko Nakatsukasa and Minako Ito and Shunsuke Chikuma and Akihiko Yoshimura",
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T1 - Reprogramming of Th1 cells into regulatory T cells through rewiring of the metabolic status

AU - Kanamori, Mitsuhiro

AU - Nakatsukasa, Hiroko

AU - Ito, Minako

AU - Chikuma, Shunsuke

AU - Yoshimura, Akihiko

PY - 2018/1/1

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N2 - T helper type 1 (Th1) cells form one of the most stable CD4 T-cell subsets, and direct conversion of fully differentiated Th1 to regulatory T (Treg) cells has been poorly investigated. Here, we established a culture method for inducing Foxp3 from Th1 cells of mice and humans. This is achieved simply by resting Th1 cells without T-cell receptor ligation before stimulation in the presence of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß). We named the resulting Th1-derived Foxp3+ cells Th1reg cells. Mouse Th1reg cells showed an inducible Treg-like phenotype and suppressive ability both in vitro and in vivo. Th1reg cells could also be induced from in vivo-developed mouse Th1 cells. Unexpectedly, the resting process enabled Foxp3 expression not through epigenetic changes at the locus, but through metabolic change resulting from reduced mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity. mTORC1 suppressed TGF-ß-induced phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in Th1 cells, which was restored in rested cells. Our study warrants future research aiming at development of immunotherapy with Th1reg cells.

AB - T helper type 1 (Th1) cells form one of the most stable CD4 T-cell subsets, and direct conversion of fully differentiated Th1 to regulatory T (Treg) cells has been poorly investigated. Here, we established a culture method for inducing Foxp3 from Th1 cells of mice and humans. This is achieved simply by resting Th1 cells without T-cell receptor ligation before stimulation in the presence of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß). We named the resulting Th1-derived Foxp3+ cells Th1reg cells. Mouse Th1reg cells showed an inducible Treg-like phenotype and suppressive ability both in vitro and in vivo. Th1reg cells could also be induced from in vivo-developed mouse Th1 cells. Unexpectedly, the resting process enabled Foxp3 expression not through epigenetic changes at the locus, but through metabolic change resulting from reduced mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity. mTORC1 suppressed TGF-ß-induced phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in Th1 cells, which was restored in rested cells. Our study warrants future research aiming at development of immunotherapy with Th1reg cells.

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